Resources

Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Description

The results from the trials during 2007 indicated that none of the evaluated parameters was significantly affected by the different replacement levels (50% and 35% fishmeal protein) compared to the control (65% fishmeal protein). The objective of the 2008 program for Gilthead seabream was focused on the 25% formulations since they have currently the highest potential for being cost effective.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2008

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A feeding trial with Gilthead seabream, the main species of marine fish produced in the Mediterranean region (>120 000 MT per year) was performed to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of soybean products (defatted soybean meal, soybean protein concentrate and soybean oil) as fish meal/oil replacement. The inclusion levels of soybean products were 18% for the control diet (high quality feed with 65% of the protein originating from fishmeal), 31-34% for the treatments with 50% of the protein coming from fishmeal and up to 46% for the treatments where only 35% of the protein was provided by fishmeal. Dietary formulation was adapted to compensate for effects of soybean inclusion on nutritional and palatability characteristics of the feeds.

Seabream were fed the experimental feeds during 8 weeks and parameters followed included growth, survival, food conversion, protein efficiency ration, carcass composition, filet composition, hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, filet index, liver composition and gut histology.

Results indicated that none of the evaluated parameters was significantly affected by the different replacement levels compared to the control. Neither growth nor food conversion were affected by the inclusion of high levels of soybean products. Histological study of the intestinal epithelium did not show any pathological sign due to the replacement. It can be concluded that for Gilthead seabream, the replacement of fish meal with soybean meal under the conditions of the trial, is perfectly feasible without affecting the performance of the fish during the culture.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China to demonstrate growth performance of red sea bream from sub-market to market size in near-shore coastal cages with a high soybean meal inclusion feed. Sea bream were stocked in three, 6.4-m3 cages at a density of 1,000 fish per cage. Sea bream were fed a 43% crude protein, 12% crude lipid diet formulated with soybean meal at a 32% inclusion rate as partial substitution for fish meal. Sea bream grew from 257 g to an average weight of 930 g per fish in 118 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 98.2 kg/m3 (628 kg per cage) in the three trial cages. The average survival rate for fish in the three cages was 67.6%. Average FCR was 3.4:1. Average net economic return was RMB 1,839 ($222) per cage, yielding a 14% return on investment. Sea bream growth was rapid on the high soy-inclusion feed, with fish growing to nearly twice the 500-g target size in 118 days of the 180-day production schedule. FCR, however, was significantly impacted by a chronic eye disease and by high fish mortality following fish handling during a net change on day 60 of the trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Sean Lan and Zhang Jian
Description

The American Soybean Association (ASA), in cooperation with the China National Fisheries Extension Center (NEC) and the Guangxi Provincial Fisheries Extension Station, conducted cage feeding trials with red drum (Sciaenops ocellata), Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and blackfin sea bream (Acanthopagrus sp.) at Longmen Town, Qingzhou City, Beihai in 2000. The objective of the trials was to demonstrate that sub-market size fish of each of the three test species could be weaned from a fresh fish diet to a soymeal-based, extruded feed and economically grown to market size on the extruded feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua