Resources

Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2016

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The growth performance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) was evaluated in an ASA coastal cage trial in Quanzhou, China. Red drum were stocked at 312.5 fish per m3 in three replicate cages of size 6.4-m3 and fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA extruded marine fish fingerling and growout feeds. Red drum grew from 14 g to 232 g in 103 days, with an average FCR of 1.54:1. Average fish survival was 73%. High mortality early in the trial and strong coastal currents required modifications to trial implementation and construction of the cage frames.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Weaning of 161-g red drum (Sciaenops ocellata) from trash fish to extruded feed, followed by growout to market size on extruded feed, was demonstrated in a cage feeding trial at the He Sheng Fa Cage Fish Farm in Ma Nan Bay, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Red drum that had only been fed with trash fish were stocked in three, 8.0-m3 cages at a density of 100 fish per m3 and weaned from trash fish to extruded feed over a period of one week. After weaning to extruded feed, red drum were fed to satiation twice daily with a 43/12 extruded, floating marine fish feed formulated by ASA using dehulled soybean meal as partial replacement for fishmeal. Red drum grew from 161 g to 834 g in 155 days on the ASA feed, with an average FCR of 1.99:1. Average fish carrying capacity at harvest was 74.5 kg/m3 of cage. The average fish survival rate was 89.5%. Net economic return and return on investment for the trial were RMB 360/m3 and 43.3%, respectively. The trial demonstrated that sub-market size red drum could be weaned from trash fish to extruded feed without difficulty. However, chronic poor water quality conditions at the trial site resulted in feed conversion efficiency with the 43/12 extruded feed that was substantially below standard. FCR with the extruded feed was still significantly better than that obtained in the area with trash fish. Feed cost per kilogram of fish growth with the ASA extruded feed was RMB 9.55, which was substantially below the cost of producing red drum with trash fish. Red drum production performance was confounded by chronically poor water quality at the test site. Dissolved oxygen level was generally below 60% saturation throughout the production season. Results of the trial indicate that Ma Nan Bay is a high- risk culture site that will likely continue to experience chronic water quality problems and periodic catastrophic fish kills related to poor water quality. Use of highly polluting trash fish and too many fish cages are the primary problems that constrain fish production. The number of fish cages needs to be drastically reduced in Ma Nan Bay and the use of trash fish prohibited to permit recovery of the ecosystem and allow sustainable fish culture in the future.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2001

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Red drum (Sciaenops ocellata) fingerling production in coastal cages was demonstrated using a two-stage cage production regime and extruded aquafeeds in an ASA feeding trial conducted near Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. In the first stage of the production regime, red drum were stocked in six, 2.25-m3 cages at a density of 2,500 fish per cage and fed to satiation daily for 30 days with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat (47/15 feed) extruded, marine fingerling feed. After 30 days, the fish were transferred to three, 8-m3 cages and stocked at a density of 200 fish per m3 for the second stage of the production regime. Fish in the three 8-m3 cages were fed the 47/15 feed to size 25 g, at which point the fish were weaned to a lower cost 43/12 marine growout feed. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. The 43/12 feed is formulated with 35% soybean meal as a partial replacement for fishmeal. Red drum grew from 0.5g to 5.6 g in the 30-day, stage one component of the trial. Average FCR with the 47/15 feed during stage one in the 2.25-m3 cages was 1.04:1. Average fish survival was 77.7%. In the second stage, red drum grew from 5.6 g to 92.5 g in 88 days on a combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds. Average FCR for the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds in stage two was 1.31:1. Fish survival averaged 51.3% in the stage two component of the trial. Results of the trial indicate that red drum perform well during the first production stage in 2.25-m3 cages, yielding good survival and excellent growth and feed conversion with the 47/15 extruded feed. Growth and FCR continued to be good in the second production stage in 8.0-m3 cages, but survival dropped significantly. Poor survival was believed to result from a combination of poor water quality and parasitic infestation. The two-stage production regime and combination-feeding regime with extruded 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was demonstrated to be a good strategy for producing red drum fingerlings. However, producers should be aware that red drum are sensitive to poor environmental conditions and should be cultured only in areas with good water quality.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2001

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Red drum growth from advanced fry to 3-g fingerlings was compared using wild caught fresh fish and manufactured feed rations. Wild caught fresh fish was fed in a ground, paste form. Manufactured feeds were fed as No. 3 (1.1-1.5 mm) crumbles and 1.5-mm extruded pellets. Red drum fry were stocked in 2.25-m3 cages at a density of 2,500 fish per cage at 36 days post swim-up. Red drum fry grew from an average weight of 0.21 g to 3.24 g and 3.42 g, respectively, on the manufactured feeds and fresh fish paste in 24 days. Feed conversion ratios for the manufactured feeds and fresh fish paste were 1.43:1 and 5.17:1, respectively. Fish survival was 91.5% for fish fed the manufactured feeds, and 81.0% for fish fed the fresh fish paste. While growth was 5% better with the fresh fish paste, higher fish survival and better feed conversion with the manufactured feeds resulted in higher fish production and greater economic return. Results indicate that manufactured feeds can effectively replace fresh fish as the starter food for advanced red drum fry in cages.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

The American Soybean Association (ASA), in cooperation with the China National Fisheries Extension Center (NEC) and the Guangxi Provincial Fisheries Extension Station, conducted cage feeding trials with red drum (Sciaenops ocellata), Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and blackfin sea bream (Acanthopagrus sp.) at Longmen Town, Qingzhou City, Beihai in 2000. The objective of the trials was to demonstrate that sub-market size fish of each of the three test species could be weaned from a fresh fish diet to a soymeal-based, extruded feed and economically grown to market size on the extruded feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

The American Soybean Association (ASA), in cooperation with the China National Fisheries Extension Center (NEC), the Guangdong Provincial Fisheries Extension Center, and the Long Gang Fisheries Research Institute coastal cage culture farm in Dong Shan Bay, conducted feeding trials with green grouper (Epinephelus awoara), red drum (Sciaenops ocellata) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) in 2000. The objective of the green grouper and pompano trials was to compare growth and economic performance of these species from fingerling to market size with a traditional fresh fish diet and a soymeal-based, extruded aquafeed. The objective of the red drum trial was to demonstrate that sub-market size red drum could be weaned from fresh fish to a soymeal-based manufactured feed and economically grown to market size on the manufactured feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua