Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of improved strain carp from fry to fingerling stage using the USSEC 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology and the USSEC formulated 36/7 SPC feed. The trial was conducted at the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Fish Farm near Harbin, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

The second year of a three-year cooperative pond feeding demonstration series was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Farm in Shanxi Province, China. The objective was to demonstrate the production performance of common carp in ponds with the ASA-IM 32/6 soymeal-based growout feed and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the same pond water for the continued operation of fish production for three years with the ASA-IM 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology as a water conservation technique.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Wanzhou District Fishery Association, Chongqing, China, to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp in Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cages with the ASA-IM 32/31 soymeal-based growout feed. The objective of the LVHD grass carp feeding demonstration was to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp with the ASA-IM formulated 32/3 extruded soybased feed without any supplementary grass in the Xintian Reservoir, Wanzhou District, Chongqing.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

The second year of a three-year cooperative pond feeding demonstration series was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Farm in Shanxi Province, China. The objective was to demonstrate the production performance of common carp in ponds with the ASA-IM 32/61soymeal-based growout feed and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the same pond water for the continued operation of fish production for three years with the ASA-IM 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology as a water conservation technique.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A cage feeding trial was conducted jointly by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Wanzhou District Fishery Extension Center in Wanzhou, Chongqing Municipality, China, and the Wanzhou Xunfeng Agricultural Development Company to compare fingerling production of three strains of common carp in the new Three Gorges Reservoir. The Three Gorges Reservoir is currently under impoundment on the Yangtze River and has reached approximately 85% of its targeted full impoundment depth of 175 meters. Full impoundment is scheduled to be reached in 2009. Efforts are underway to establish sustainable cage aquaculture technologies for local farmers living adjacent to the reservoir by the time the reservoir reaches its maximum level.

ASA-IM participated in initial cage feeding trials with common carp in the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2005 and 2006. Three potential constraints to cage production of common carp in the reservoir were identified during these initial trials: 1) water temperature in Three Gorges Reservoir was consistently below the optimal level for common carp culture; 2) periodic silt water turbidity impacted fish health and growth; and 3) inbreeding of local strain common carp reduced fish growth and feed conversion efficiency. The 2007 trial was the first phase of a two-year trial to compare production performance of three strains of common carp to see if one or more responded better than the local common carp strain to the high silt and low water temperature conditions in Three Gorges Reservoir. The local common carp strain was used in the 2005 and 2006 ASA- IM cage trials. The local common carp strain was also compared against the Jiang common carp strain in one of the two 2006 trials.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A series of feeding trials was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Taixing Fish Stock Farm of Jiangsu Province, the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Hainan Fish Breeding Center of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, and the Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Lab of the Feed Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to evaluate a soy protein fingerling feed for key cultured freshwater fish species in China. The soy protein fingerling feed used soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a replacement for fishmeal in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed. Feeding trials comparing the standard ASA-IM 36/7 feed with fishmeal (36/7 FM) and the soy protein 36/7 feed with SPC (36/7 SPC) were conducted during the 2007 aquaculture production season at five locations in China with common carp, grass carp, tilapia and channel catfish. The objectives of replacing fishmeal with SPC in the fingerling feed were: 1) to provide feed millers with an option to fishmeal as a means to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal; and 2) to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

Two cage feeding trials were jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and companies associated with the Wanzhou District Fishery Extension Center in Wanzhou, Chongqing, China, to assess the technical and economic feasibility of culturing common carp in LVHD cages in the new Three Gorges Reservoir. The Three Gorges Reservoir is currently under impoundment. Water depth during the 2006 cage feeding trial was approximately 135 meters. Maximum depth when full impoundment is attained in 2009 will be 175 meters.

ASA-IM participated in initial cage feeding trials with common carp in the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2005. The 2005 cage trials identified potential production constraints associated with periodic silt water turbidity and low water temperature in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The 2006 trials continued to evaluate these constraints, with the objective of identifying possible options to overcoming the constraints.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at Subang, West Java, Indonesia to demonstrate the growth potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) cultured using soy-based feeds in 25.2 m3 raceways. Common carp fingerlings of 47 g were stocked into three 25.2 m3 raceways at 1260 fish per raceway. Fish in all three raceways were fed a soybean meal based, extruded feed that was produced domestically in Indonesia. After 147 days of culture the common carp reached an average size of 532 g with an average FCR of 1.90:1. Gross production averaged 448 kg/raceway or 18 kg/m3 of raceway volume.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding trial was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center to test feed-based production of Songpu variety common carp in ponds in the short production season of northeastern China, latitude 46o north. The trial was conducted at the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Fish Farm near Harbin. The feeding trial evaluated Songpu carp performance on an ASA-IM soymeal-based feed and the resulting economic value to fish farmers in northeast China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at Lake Maninjau, West Sumatra, Indonesia to demonstrate the growth potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) cultured using soy maximized feeds in 3.5-m3 cages. Common carp fingerlings of 44 g were stocked into three 3.5-m3 cages at 1,755 fish per cage. Fish in all three cages were fed a soybean meal maximized, extruded feed that was produced domestically in Indonesia. After 98 days of culture the common carp reached an average size of 314 g with an average FCR of 1.55:1. Gross production averaged165 kg/m3 of cage volume.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at Lake Maninjau, West Sumatra, Indonesia to demonstrate the growth of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed soy maximized feeds in 1.5-m3 cages. Common carp fingerlings of 66 g were stocked into three 1.5-m3 cages at 857 fish per cage. Fish in all three cages were fed a soybean meal maximized, extruded feed that was produced domestically in Indonesia. After 82 days of culture the common carp reached an average size of 350 g with an average FCR of 1.42:1. Gross production averaged 192 kg/m3 of cage volume.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of mirror carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all- plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Harbin is located at approximately 46o north latitude. Fish were stocked in three ponds of size 5.4-mu per pond at a density of 400 mirror carp and 100 silver carp per mu. Mirror carp grew from 149 g to an average weight of 1,073 g per fish in 140 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 365 kg/mu for mirror carp and 62 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for mirror carp and silver carp were 86% and 81%, respectively. Mirror carp FCR with the soymeal-based feeds averaged 1.24:1. Average net economic return was RMB 487 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 23.2%. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that mirror carp exhibited good growth performance and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology. Mirror carp reached the target market size and had good meat quality, body color and body conformation. The use of extruded, floating feed significantly reduced labor costs, lowered fish FCR, avoided feed waste, improved water quality, and allowed production of healthy and disease-free fish without the use of drugs or chemicals.

Language
English

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of common carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all-plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 2.4-mu ponds at a density of 700 common carp and 100 silver carp per mu. Common carp grew from 80 g to an average weight of 668 g per fish in 99 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 466 kg/mu for common carp and 79 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for common carp and silver carp were 99.6% and 100%, respectively. Common carp FCR with the soymeal-based feeds averaged 1.46:1. Average net economic return was RMB 371 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 15.4%. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that common carp exhibited good growth performance and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology. Common carp reached the target market size in just 99 days and had good quality and market acceptance. The use of extruded, floating feed significantly reduced labor costs, lowered fish FCR, improved water quality, and allowed production of healthy and disease-free fish without the use of drugs or chemicals.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Twenty-three cage trials were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to assess fry-fingerling and fingerling-market production potential of Nile tilapia, common carp, crucian carp, wuchang carp (bream), and channel catfish in low-volume high-density (LVHD) cages. The objective of the trials was to test and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of production of these species in LVHD cage culture systems with feeds formulated primarily from plant proteins. An all-plant protein diet was tested against similar diets containing 5-10% fish meal.

The all-plant protein ‘J’ diet produced as good or better growth than the ‘H’ and ‘K’ diets containing 5% fish meal in 6 of 8 comparison trials with nile tilapia, 5 of 7 trials with common carp, and all trials with crucian carp and bream. Nile tilapia averaged daily weight gains of 5.4% and 3.1% per day for 50 g and >96 g fingerlings, respectively. Average net income was Y335/m3 ($40.55/m3) for all Nile tilapia trials reporting economic data. Highest net income was Y562/m3 ($68.04/m3) with the ‘J’ floating feed. Nile tilapia fry to fingerling production inLVHD cages was technically and economically feasible, with average net economic returns of Y360/m3 ($43.58/m3).

Common carp did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in formulated feeds. Fish in seven cage trials gained an average of 2.6% of body weight per day on all diets tested. Best comparative growth performance was with the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds. The ‘H’ feed produced 7-13% better growth than the ‘K’ feed in two comparison trials. There were no differences in growthwith the ‘K’ and ‘S’ feeds in one comparative trial. Stocking density had no effect on common carp growth. Fish at 400-500/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.65% of body weight per day, while fish at 270-300/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.5% of body weight per day.

Crucian carp fingerlings of 20-26 g did not attain a target market size of 250 g in two cage production trials. Maximum growth with 26-g fingerlings was 177 g with the ‘J’ feed. Stocking of larger fingerlings is indicated to reach market size by the end of the production season. Average FCR of 2.45 was high and indicates a need to modify feed formulations for crucian carp in cages.

Bream did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in one LVHD trial conducted. Floating forms of the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds produced 6.7% better growth than the sinking forms of the feedsat the 330/m3 density tested. Fingerling stocking size of 35 g was too small to produce market size fish in this trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1996

Author
H.R. Schmittou, Zhang Jian and M.C. Cremer1