Resources

Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2018

Author
United States Soybean Export Council

Kevin Roepke

Regional Director - Americas

U.S. Soybean Export Council

Guadalajara World Trade Center

Ave Mariano Otero No. 1249

Torre Pacifico Int. B 171M

Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico 44530

Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2016

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2016

Author
United States Soybean Export Council

Belinda Pignotti

Contractor, South America

Jairo Amezquita

Project Manager of Aquaculture Utilization for the Americas Region
Language
Spanish

Date Published
January 25, 2013

Author
United Soybean Export Council
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Description

Research is needed to advance the fish feeds sector in the United States and the world by increasing the cost-effectiveness and environmental sustainability of the aquafeeds used during the growout stages. This project addresses the need to develop practical diets for Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), using combinations of various soy protein products at different ages in order to formulate cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets.

The proposed goal is to maximize fish meal replacement for Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, at different ages in order to optimize the soy-based products in aquaculture feeds. The use of protein sources such as standard soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and soy by selective breeding program could greatly improve the profitability and appeal of the industry. In essence, the main objective was to conduct scientific experiments with practical application aimed at improving the ecological and economic efficiency of feeds for the Florida pompano and eventually for other commercially important species as well. The present proposal represented the second research phase of a study financed by United Soybean Board (USB) in 2012.

Florida pompano is a truly euryhaline species of high market value and demand. With the recent interest in developing aquaculture of high-value carnivorous species, production costs are a primary concern since carnivorous fish require greater amounts of protein and fishmeal represents the primary protein source in feeds formulations. Lack of adequate feeds for the growout of pompano remains a serious bottleneck preventing pompano aquaculture expansion to commercial scale. No basic or applied research has been conducted to develop ecologically and economically efficient diets for larger size pompano, at the later stages of the growout period, when the vast majority of the feeds are used. We proposed to conduct innovative scientific research to address and resolve this problem.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Dr. Daniel Benetti & Dr. Jorge Suarez
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They have a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects have systematically evaluated nutrient restrictions that limit the inclusion of soy products in the feed. To date, we have been very successful in increasing the level of soy protein (solvent extracted meal and soy protein concentrate) in practical feed formulations for this species.

Further research efforts have been supported and coordinated with a range of funding agencies to allow leveraging of research dollars. Previous studies have included the use of poultry byproduct meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fish meal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a clear response to taurine. The physiological characterization of deficiencies and the dietary requirement for taurine are currently underway. It is clear taurine is a limiting nutrient, even with supplements for lysine, methionine and taurine (as required), the removal of animal protein and/or fish meal results in depressed growth. This indicates that another nutrient is limiting in high soy diets when animal protein is reduced.

As part of this research we re-evaluated the amino acid profile of recent feed formulations to identify if there is a consistent amino acid or group of amino acids that are reduced. In the most recent diets glycine, valine and histidine were reduced as diets were shifted. These are not typically considered essential but all function as attractants. Consequently, evaluation of these or other possibly limiting amino acids is warranted.

Another way to improve production is through proper feed management. Without proper feed management economic returns from the feed may not be optimized. A preliminary study comparing one feeding to four feedings per day resulted in almost twice the final weight of the fish. This may be due to the feeding habits of pompano which grazes in the surf zone on small bivalves and other animals. Consequently the fish has evolved to have a relatively small stomach and quick digestive systems which may mean multiple feedings are required to obtain best performance. Hence, in order to help commercial producers improve growth rates and have efficient food conversion another component of this work was to evaluate increasing the number of feedings per day to determine if feed intake and growth are affected. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate if amino acids other than lysine, methionine and taurine are limiting in high soy diets with low levels of animal protein; and 2) determine the response of juvenile pompano to increasing numbers of feedings.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration with spotted rose snapper was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Martec Industries S. A. at the Martec experimental aquaculture site located at Paquera in front of Isla Cedro, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a diet in which a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) having high protein and low oligosaccharide content partially replaced fishmeal. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that inclusion of SPC NutrivanceTM at an inclusion rate up to 26.4% in the spotted rose snapper diet did not affect snapper production parameters, and that there was no difference in fish performance with the SPC diet and a commercial diet formulated with fishmeal as the primary protein source. Hence, the SPC-NutrivanceTM appears to be a potential ingredient for manufacturing aquafeeds for marine fish species.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2013

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and Amazon Fish Products S. A. in Ucayali, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the use of two new U.S. soybean products, Schillinger Genetics SG-3010 soybean meal and TechMix NutrivanceTM soy protein concentrate (SPC), to partially replace fishmeal in the diet for paiche Arapaima gigas. Both of these U.S. soy products have a high protein (>55%) and low oligosaccharide content with minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that SG-3010 soybean meal at an inclusion rate up to 41.9% and NutrivanceTM SPC at an inclusion rate up to 36.5% in the diet for paiche yielded fish production equivalent to that obtained with fishmeal-based commercial diets. Results indicate that both soy ingredients offer feed formulation options for the paiche industry in its effort to reduce dependence on fishmeal.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Max Risco, Luis Henostroza, Herbert E. Quintero
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Titikaka Trout Co. in Lake Titicaca, Puno, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a U.S. manufactured soy protein concentrate (NutrivanceTM) to replace fishmeal in the diet for cage cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. NutrivanceTM is a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) with high protein and low oligosaccharide content and minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Rainbow trout performance was compared with a NutrivanceTM SPC diet and a fishmeal based diet. Results yielded similar trout performance with the two diets. The demonstration confirmed that SPC can partially replace fishmeal in the diet for rainbow trout, and that NutrivanceTM SPC is an acceptable ingredient for use in trout diets, thereby providing an alternative to fishmeal for the Peruvian trout farming industry.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Jorge Valencia, Dr. Herbert E. Quintero
Description

During phase I of this project, in 2009, we identified an optimal diet for the replacement of fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) and/or soybean meal (SBM) for summer flounder, based on a feeding trial in which six diets were tested. The diets included a FM control, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SBM, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SPC, and three diets based on a mixture of FM, SBM and SPC. Our work for phase 2 in 2010 was to compare the “best” diet (diet 6, all SPC replacement of FM, with no SBM) from that trial with a “standard” commercial diet in a six-month study using a quasi-commercial-scale rearing environment.

While that work was going on, we also had funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Aquaculture Initiative (NOAA-NMAI) to investigate different levels of FM replacement with SBM, and especially to examine if those levels affected the performance of the fish (summer flounder) in a bacterial challenge, which tests their resistance to disease. To our surprise, the fish survived best in the bacterial challenge after they had been fed the diet with the highest level of SBM (70% replacement of FM with SBM), even though their growth on that diet was significantly worse than that of fish grown on diets with lesser amounts of SBM. This unanticipated result suggested to us that something in SBM (but perhaps lacking in SPC) may serve as an immunostimulant to boost the immune system of fish.

Based on the results of the NOAA-NMAI work, we proposed to USB that we would examine the relationship between levels of FM, SBM and SPC during 2011. The graduate student involved in the project also had some separate funding for another experiment along these lines in early 2011. Our goal in these studies was to try to quantify the relationship between SBM and SPC levels in the diet and the survival of fish in a bacterial challenge. Fish were grown in our standard feeding trial prior to their use in the bacterial challenge, so we were also able to obtain data on survival, growth, and food conversion before they were challenged.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
David A. Bengtson, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chong M. Lee and Dan Ward
Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2012

Author
United States Soybean Export Council