Resources

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
M.A. Booth, G.L. Allan, I. Russell & M. Elkins
Description

Since 2007 Kampachi Farms (formerly Kona Blue Water Farms) and the University of Nebraska Lincoln have been working to reduce the use of fishmeal and fish oil in the diets of Seriola rivoliana, by substituting soy-based proteins and oils. These efforts are intended to reduce the need for wild-caught fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO). Results of previous years’ trials have shown that fish consuming a diet containing 40% soy protein concentrate (SPC) and a high omega-3 soy oil (STA), maintain growth rates comparable to fish eating the standard commercially prepared diet used to raise Kona Kampachi® (Seriola rivoliana) as long as supplementary taurine (a non-essential amino acid) is included in the SPC based diets. In 2011 two trials took place in order to continue this research and expand upon results.

The first of the two trials (designated as the “growout” trial) expanded upon a short-term study performed in 2010, when commercially viable growth rates and food conversion ratios (FCR) were achieved with a SPC/STA based diet. The 2011 growout trial used the same feed formulation for an eight month period, such that S. rivoliana could be reared to a marketable size (≥1.5kg) in land-based tanks. The growout trial then culminated in a consumer taste test. The consumer panel participated in a sensory evaluation to note detectable differences (if any) between the two types of fillets and to assess the palatability of SPC fed fish fish versus fish fed the standard control diet. In addition a questionnaire was included to garner consumer perceptions of aquaculture and soy-fed fish.

The second trial (referred to as the “fish oil reduction” trial) focused on further decreasing the amount of fish oil in Kampachi diets. All experimental feeds in this trial contained 40% SPC, with ascending levels of stearidonic acid (STA)-rich soybean oil. The results of this trial will indicate the changes of the fatty acid profiles of the fish (and thus marketability of health aspects of marine fish) and also if there may be any unforeseen fish health issues with the reduction in fish oil.

Results from both trials are outlined within this report. Overall health, growth, feed conversion ratios and final weights were used to compare the effectiveness of the soy-derived feed with that of the standard diet currently used by Kona Blue. The consumer panel taste test was conducted by Oregon State University’s Food Innovation Center, whose responsible parties provided all taste test related results and statistical analyses, presented herein. Tissue analyses of fish fed all diets used throughout the year are also included.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

This project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of replacing up to 50% of the fish oil (FO) with high omega-3 soy oil (STA) in the diet of S. rivoliana. The question posed in this part of the study is whether this is likely to be a profitable substitution, and if so, what is the potential size of the world aquaculture market for STA oil and the engineered soybeans required to produce it.

The profitability of substitution depends on the price of STA relative to that of FO, and the physical rate of substitution of one for the other. The growout trial of the project demonstrated that if fish must be fed for a fixed period of 238 days, it requires about 1.24 kg of STA to substitute for 1 kg of FO. (The “oil reduction” trials imply roughly similar rates of substitution.) Thus only if the price of FO is more than 24% above the price of STA would the substitution to be profitable under this fixed 238-day production period.

The price of commercial STA oil will certainly be higher than commodity soy oil because of the strict market segregation required for a genetically engineered product such as this. We estimate that STA oil will sell at a 22-40% premium over commodity soy oil, depending on volume, yield drag and other factors. We also expect that the current 3% FO premium over commodity soy oil is likely to persist. If so, the price of STA oil will be 19-37% higher than FO, which would certainly result in losses from substituting STA for FO in a fixed-period production plan of 238 days.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
R. Perrin and L.Fulginiti
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

The second year of a three-year cooperative pond feeding demonstration series was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Farm in Shanxi Province, China. The objective was to demonstrate the production performance of common carp in ponds with the ASA-IM 32/6 soymeal-based growout feed and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the same pond water for the continued operation of fish production for three years with the ASA-IM 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology as a water conservation technique.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/7 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the Yangtze River Delta that an all-plant protein fingerling feed would yield the equivalent tilapia production and performance as a high fishmeal inclusion feed. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to formulate without fishmeal, which is limited in availability with increasing price, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A tilapia feeding demonstration was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) and the Hainan Fish Breeding Farm of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, Haikou City, Hainan Province. The objective of the demonstration was to demonstrate the optimal feed protein level for maximizing economic return for tilapia cultured in low volume, high density (LVHD) cages. The demonstration compared tilapia growth and production cost with feeds varying in protein level from 24% to 36%. Optimizing feed protein level is critical to maximizing economic return in tilapia operations, where the current economic environment and increasing competition have narrowed profit opportunities.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian, Michael C. Cremer and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Wanzhou District Fishery Association, Chongqing, China, to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp in Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cages with the ASA-IM 32/31 soymeal-based growout feed. The objective of the LVHD grass carp feeding demonstration was to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp with the ASA-IM formulated 32/3 extruded soybased feed without any supplementary grass in the Xintian Reservoir, Wanzhou District, Chongqing.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

The second year of a three-year cooperative pond feeding demonstration series was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Farm in Shanxi Province, China. The objective was to demonstrate the production performance of common carp in ponds with the ASA-IM 32/61soymeal-based growout feed and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the same pond water for the continued operation of fish production for three years with the ASA-IM 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology as a water conservation technique.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the Yangtze River Delta that an all-plant protein fingerling feed would yield the equivalent tilapia production and performance as a high fishmeal inclusion feed. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to formulate without fishmeal, which is limited in availability with increasing price, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond Feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center to show the effectiveness of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted at the Demo Farm of the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the north region of China that a protein fingerling feed could be used to culture grass carp fingerlings. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The American Soybean Association-International Marketing (ASA-IM), in cooperation with the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center conducted a grass carp feeding demonstration with the zero water discharge technology. The objective of the feeding demo was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibilities of producing over 2.0-kg grass carp using the ASA-IM formulated 32/31 extruded soymeal-based feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Jiangsu Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center, and the Pingwang State Fish Farm, Jiangsu Province, in collaboration with the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science (NIES) to demonstrate the productivity, economic, and environmental advantages of the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology with ASA-IM formulated extruded soybased feed in comparison to a local sinking feed. The feeding trial was conducted on the Demonstration Farm of Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A tilapia feeding demonstration was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) and the Hainan Fish Breeding Farm of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, Haikou City, Hainan Province. The objective of the demonstration was to demonstrate the optimal feed protein level for maximizing economic return for tilapia cultured in low volume, high density (LVHD) cages. The demonstration compared tilapia growth and production cost with feeds varying in protein level from 24% to 36%. Optimizing feed protein level is critical to maximizing economic return in tilapia operations, where the current economic environment and increasing competition have narrowed profit opportunities.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian, Michael C. Cremer and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Wanzhou District Fishery Association, Chongqing, China, to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp in Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cages with the ASA-IM 32/31 soymeal-based growout feed. The objective of the LVHD grass carp feeding demonstration was to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp with the ASA-IM formulated 32/3 extruded soybased feed without any supplementary grass in the Xintian Reservoir, Wanzhou District, Chongqing.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond feeding trial was conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, in cooperation with the China National Fisheries Technology Extension Center (NEC) and the Beijing Municipal Fishery Technology Extension Center (BFTEC), to demonstrate the value of soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a substitute for fishmeal in the growout feed for black carp. Three previous ASA-IM feeding trials conducted in 2006 and 2007 had demonstrated the value of the ASA-IM 36/7 1 soy-based feed for culturing black carp. In two trials in 2006, black carp grew from 250 g to 855 g in 113 days with an FCR of 1.08:1, and from 51 g to 693 g in 131 days with an average FCR of 1.32:1 with the 36/7 feed. In a 2007 trial, black carp grew from 600 g to 2.24 kg in 113 days with an FCR of 1.39:1 with the 36/7 feed. The feed in both the 2006 and 2007 trials contained an average of 43% dehulled soybean meal and 13.25% fish meal.

The 2008 black carp feeding trial compared black carp performance with the standard 36/7 feed containing fishmeal that was used in the 2006 and 2007 black carp feeding trials, and a nutritionally equivalent 36/7 feed in which fishmeal was replaced by SPC. The objective was to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers that SPC could be used as a substitute for fishmeal to provide a renewable, all-plant protein feed that would allow for greater feed formulation flexibility and improved industry sustainability.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2008

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian