Resources

Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration with spotted rose snapper was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Martec Industries S. A. at the Martec experimental aquaculture site located at Paquera in front of Isla Cedro, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a diet in which a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) having high protein and low oligosaccharide content partially replaced fishmeal. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that inclusion of SPC NutrivanceTM at an inclusion rate up to 26.4% in the spotted rose snapper diet did not affect snapper production parameters, and that there was no difference in fish performance with the SPC diet and a commercial diet formulated with fishmeal as the primary protein source. Hence, the SPC-NutrivanceTM appears to be a potential ingredient for manufacturing aquafeeds for marine fish species.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2013

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and Amazon Fish Products S. A. in Ucayali, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the use of two new U.S. soybean products, Schillinger Genetics SG-3010 soybean meal and TechMix NutrivanceTM soy protein concentrate (SPC), to partially replace fishmeal in the diet for paiche Arapaima gigas. Both of these U.S. soy products have a high protein (>55%) and low oligosaccharide content with minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that SG-3010 soybean meal at an inclusion rate up to 41.9% and NutrivanceTM SPC at an inclusion rate up to 36.5% in the diet for paiche yielded fish production equivalent to that obtained with fishmeal-based commercial diets. Results indicate that both soy ingredients offer feed formulation options for the paiche industry in its effort to reduce dependence on fishmeal.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Max Risco, Luis Henostroza, Herbert E. Quintero
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Titikaka Trout Co. in Lake Titicaca, Puno, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a U.S. manufactured soy protein concentrate (NutrivanceTM) to replace fishmeal in the diet for cage cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. NutrivanceTM is a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) with high protein and low oligosaccharide content and minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Rainbow trout performance was compared with a NutrivanceTM SPC diet and a fishmeal based diet. Results yielded similar trout performance with the two diets. The demonstration confirmed that SPC can partially replace fishmeal in the diet for rainbow trout, and that NutrivanceTM SPC is an acceptable ingredient for use in trout diets, thereby providing an alternative to fishmeal for the Peruvian trout farming industry.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Jorge Valencia, Dr. Herbert E. Quintero
Description

A comparison feeding demonstration on grass carp density was jointly conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC), in cooperation with the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province. The feeding demonstration was conducted at the Yongji Municipal Fish Stock Farm, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the production performance of grass carp at two different stocking densities using the USSEC 80:20 pond production technology, 32/31extruded soybased feed and improved aeration system.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and the Shenyang Municipal Fishery Research Institute. The objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the production performance and economic value of the 32/61 soy-based feed for Songpu carp growout production with the USSEC zero water discharge technology to fish farmers in the northeastern region of China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

An in-pond raceway system to intensify pond aquaculture production demonstration was jointly conducted by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) program, in collaboration with the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries Extension Center and Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co., Ltd. to evaluate the technical and economic feasibilities of the in-pond raceway aquaculture (IPA) technology. The IPA technology was first developed in the United States as a means to increase fish production in the conventional pond units by culturing fish in confined raceway with aerated flowing water and removing fish metabolic wastes. Removal of the solid wastes significantly increases fish production by three times as compared to the conventional 80:20 pond culture technology. The technology was first transferred to China by USSEC through a cooperative project funded by the Iowa Soybean Association and tested at the Pingwang Fish Farm of the Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of improved strain carp from fry to fingerling stage using the USSEC 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology and the USSEC formulated 36/7 SPC feed. The trial was conducted at the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Fish Farm near Harbin, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Dr Mark Booth
Description

During phase I of this project, in 2009, we identified an optimal diet for the replacement of fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) and/or soybean meal (SBM) for summer flounder, based on a feeding trial in which six diets were tested. The diets included a FM control, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SBM, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SPC, and three diets based on a mixture of FM, SBM and SPC. Our work for phase 2 in 2010 was to compare the “best” diet (diet 6, all SPC replacement of FM, with no SBM) from that trial with a “standard” commercial diet in a six-month study using a quasi-commercial-scale rearing environment.

While that work was going on, we also had funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Aquaculture Initiative (NOAA-NMAI) to investigate different levels of FM replacement with SBM, and especially to examine if those levels affected the performance of the fish (summer flounder) in a bacterial challenge, which tests their resistance to disease. To our surprise, the fish survived best in the bacterial challenge after they had been fed the diet with the highest level of SBM (70% replacement of FM with SBM), even though their growth on that diet was significantly worse than that of fish grown on diets with lesser amounts of SBM. This unanticipated result suggested to us that something in SBM (but perhaps lacking in SPC) may serve as an immunostimulant to boost the immune system of fish.

Based on the results of the NOAA-NMAI work, we proposed to USB that we would examine the relationship between levels of FM, SBM and SPC during 2011. The graduate student involved in the project also had some separate funding for another experiment along these lines in early 2011. Our goal in these studies was to try to quantify the relationship between SBM and SPC levels in the diet and the survival of fish in a bacterial challenge. Fish were grown in our standard feeding trial prior to their use in the bacterial challenge, so we were also able to obtain data on survival, growth, and food conversion before they were challenged.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
David A. Bengtson, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chong M. Lee and Dan Ward
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Dr. Relicardo M. Coloso
Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2012

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They are great tasting fish with a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects evaluated the use of soy protein concentrate and selected supplements in marine fish feeds. Further research efforts supported by National Sea Grant Funds have evaluated the use of poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fishmeal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a conditional response to taurine. Given the identification of a taurine limitation, it would be beneficial to re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in practical diets for the Florida pompano and to identify if there are other nutrients that may be limiting.

The objectives of this study are: 1) re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in soy based feed formulations when taurine is supplemented to the diet; 2) conduct a growout trial with soy based and fishmeal based diets; and 3) use growth trial results to perform cost/benefit analyses comparing high soy diets to traditional feed formulation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson, D. Allen Davis and Jesse Chappell
Description

Milkfish, Chanos chanos, is an important food fish in Southeast Asia and its aquaculture potential is fast growing in the Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, and other Southeast Asian countries. The Philippines produced about 375,000 metric tons of milkfish in 2011 (BAS 2012) with 60% coming from brackish water ponds, 20% coming from freshwater cages and pens, and 20% coming from marine floating net cages. The intensification of milkfish aquaculture will require the use of a more cost-effective and low pollution formulated feed and a better production technology that would be sustainable for generations to come.

The primary goal of this project is to build demand for soy products in aquaculture markets in the Philippines and Southeast Asia by investigating the use of soy products, soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC), as alternatives to fish meal in practical feeds for milkfish. Before soy products can be applied as alternatives to fishmeal in milkfish feed, the protein to energy requirement of milkfish should be determined using practical diets. Once known, the maximum tolerance level of milkfish to soybean meal and soy protein concentrate using practical diets should be determined. Finally, a milkfish feed containing optimum levels of soybean meal and soy protein concentrate could be formulated and pilot-tested in marine floating net cages and shown to be shown to be both cost effective and environment-friendly. In addition, field-testing of this formulation could be done through the USB International Marketing Program.

The research was done in the facilities of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC AQD) at Tigbauan, Iloilo which has a robust capability to conduct the research because of its decades-long involvement in milkfish nutrition and feed development as well as its active involvement in training and information dissemination on sustainable aquaculture in the Southeast Asian region.

A cost-effective and low pollution milkfish feed will benefit not only soybean producers and traders but also fish farmers, aquafeed manufacturers, fish nutritionists, academics, students, and other stakeholders of sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Relicardo M. Coloso, Ph. D.
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

As shrimp prices have fallen and production costs increased, shrimp farmers are more concerned with economic efficiencies of the feed. This means they are quite receptive to moving away from traditional high fish meal diet to less expensive protein sources. Additionally, there are social pressures to minimize the use of fish meal and other marine ingredients in shrimp feed formulations. The most logical replacement for protein from fish meal is to increase the level of protein originating from soybeans which means that inclusion levels in shrimp feeds will need to be increased. To date we have identified most of the limiting nutrients in soy based diets and we have increased the inclusion levels as high as 58% of the ration. Although some nutrient restriction still need to be defined, nutrient density of the diet is a problem as the level of soybean meal is increased. This simply means, that a high protein ingredient is required to provide room in the formulations. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) can meet this need as it is suitably priced to not only replace fish meal but also provide the required room in diet formulation. Hence, the objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of diets formulated to contain increasing percentages of SPC (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12%), in production diets for L. vannamei reared under production conditions. Consequently, two parallel growth trials were conducted in outdoor tanks and ponds to evaluate the production potential of the various diets. In both trials, growth, feed conversion and survival were good and there were no significant differences between the four open formulation feeds containing up to 12% SPC. Based on present results, growth, feed conversion, survival and production yields were not effected by the use of SPC up to 12% of the diet. Hence, once can recommend that levels up to 12% are reasonable to use in commercial feed formulations for shrimp.

Language
English

Date Published
October 16, 2011

Author
D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Description

A shrimp feeding trial was run at INMARLACA Farm, located in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela to replace Fish Meal (FM) with Soybean Meal (SBM).

Language
English

Date Published
October 23, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Aquacultural production of trout and salmon, collectively referred to as salmonids, is one of the largest global aquaculture industries and currently uses a disproportionately high amount of fish meal in dietary formulations. Sustainable production and growth in salmonid culture demands identification of alternative high-protein feed ingredients. The chemical composition of soy protein concentrate (SPC) suggests it has potential has an ingredient in diets fed to salmonids. There have been over 30 published studies of SPC use in diets for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. The data indicate small trout and salmon are more sensitive to SPC inclusion in diets than larger fish. SPC can provide up to 50% of the dietary crude protein in diets for small fish. Fish meal can be completely replaced in diets for larger fish. Results from digestibility studies indicate high nutrient availability from SPC. Methionine supplementation appears necessary for salmonids and taurine supplementation was recently identified as beneficial in SPC-based diets for trout. The form of phosphorus in SPC remains problematic, but incorporation of phytase or pretreatment of SPC with phytase improved phosphorus availability. Sensory characteristics of salmonid fillets fed SPC have been lighter in color than those from fish fed fish meal, but texture and flavor have not been adversely impacted. Several dietary formulations are available that have been tested in the target species. Ingredient cost hampered use of SPC in the 1990’s and remains an issue in the 21st century. However, given the escalating price of fish meal and demand for that commodity, use of SPC in salmonid diets appears promising.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) is a carnivorous marine finfish with commercial aquaculture potential. While the price of fishmeal has never been higher, soy has long been considered a cost-effective potential replacement candidate for aquacultured fish. However, there are many products on the domestic and international market with varying nutritional profiles that may or may not be well-utilized by carnivorous fish. Examples include a variety of refined soy protein concentrates (SPCs) and more cost-effective fermented soy proteins, several of which could hold promise for the aquaculture industry. Through a methodical experimental approach at the University of Miami Experimental Hatchery (UMEH), three soy protein products were evaluated for potential incorporation into feeds for Florida pompano.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Selecting a new fish species with a potential value for aquaculture has essential importance for the future development of the aquaculture industry. In the United States, Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, is among the marine fish species with aquaculture potential that has caught the interest of the industry for being a truly euryhaline species. Research is needed to complete our knowledge of the nutritional requirements of Florida pompano at different ages in order to develop cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets. With the recent interest in high market-value carnivorous species, cost concerns are extremely important since carnivorous fish require greater amounts of protein and fishmeal represents the primary protein source in feeds formulations. A review of the literature confirms the importance of completing the nutritional requirements for Florida Pompano at different ages in the development of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets. Our goal was to examine the nutritional requirements in terms of protein and energy for Florida Pompano close to its typical marketable weight, which is between 400 and 600 g. To date, only the nutritional requirements for juvenile fish weighing up to 45 g have been examined. Since nutritional requirements have been well described to change as a fish grows and develops, it is essential that the requirements for larger Pompano, which consume greater quantities of foods than their smaller counterparts, be elucidated. This is most important for protein and lipid levels as they are the most expensive dietary components.

Language
English

Date Published
October 16, 2011

Author
Matthew C.J. Taynor a, Jorge A. Suareza, Carlos Tudelaa, Gerard Cuzonb, Ronald Hoeniga and Daniel D. Benettia