Resources

Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2012

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

Since 2007 Kampachi Farms (formerly Kona Blue Water Farms) and the University of Nebraska Lincoln have been working to reduce the use of fishmeal and fish oil in the diets of Seriola rivoliana, by substituting soy-based proteins and oils. These efforts are intended to reduce the need for wild-caught fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO). Results of previous years’ trials have shown that fish consuming a diet containing 40% soy protein concentrate (SPC) and a high omega-3 soy oil (STA), maintain growth rates comparable to fish eating the standard commercially prepared diet used to raise Kona Kampachi® (Seriola rivoliana) as long as supplementary taurine (a non-essential amino acid) is included in the SPC based diets. In 2011 two trials took place in order to continue this research and expand upon results.

The first of the two trials (designated as the “growout” trial) expanded upon a short-term study performed in 2010, when commercially viable growth rates and food conversion ratios (FCR) were achieved with a SPC/STA based diet. The 2011 growout trial used the same feed formulation for an eight month period, such that S. rivoliana could be reared to a marketable size (≥1.5kg) in land-based tanks. The growout trial then culminated in a consumer taste test. The consumer panel participated in a sensory evaluation to note detectable differences (if any) between the two types of fillets and to assess the palatability of SPC fed fish fish versus fish fed the standard control diet. In addition a questionnaire was included to garner consumer perceptions of aquaculture and soy-fed fish.

The second trial (referred to as the “fish oil reduction” trial) focused on further decreasing the amount of fish oil in Kampachi diets. All experimental feeds in this trial contained 40% SPC, with ascending levels of stearidonic acid (STA)-rich soybean oil. The results of this trial will indicate the changes of the fatty acid profiles of the fish (and thus marketability of health aspects of marine fish) and also if there may be any unforeseen fish health issues with the reduction in fish oil.

Results from both trials are outlined within this report. Overall health, growth, feed conversion ratios and final weights were used to compare the effectiveness of the soy-derived feed with that of the standard diet currently used by Kona Blue. The consumer panel taste test was conducted by Oregon State University’s Food Innovation Center, whose responsible parties provided all taste test related results and statistical analyses, presented herein. Tissue analyses of fish fed all diets used throughout the year are also included.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

This project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of replacing up to 50% of the fish oil (FO) with high omega-3 soy oil (STA) in the diet of S. rivoliana. The question posed in this part of the study is whether this is likely to be a profitable substitution, and if so, what is the potential size of the world aquaculture market for STA oil and the engineered soybeans required to produce it.

The profitability of substitution depends on the price of STA relative to that of FO, and the physical rate of substitution of one for the other. The growout trial of the project demonstrated that if fish must be fed for a fixed period of 238 days, it requires about 1.24 kg of STA to substitute for 1 kg of FO. (The “oil reduction” trials imply roughly similar rates of substitution.) Thus only if the price of FO is more than 24% above the price of STA would the substitution to be profitable under this fixed 238-day production period.

The price of commercial STA oil will certainly be higher than commodity soy oil because of the strict market segregation required for a genetically engineered product such as this. We estimate that STA oil will sell at a 22-40% premium over commodity soy oil, depending on volume, yield drag and other factors. We also expect that the current 3% FO premium over commodity soy oil is likely to persist. If so, the price of STA oil will be 19-37% higher than FO, which would certainly result in losses from substituting STA for FO in a fixed-period production plan of 238 days.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
R. Perrin and L.Fulginiti
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

The ultimate goal of the project is to advance practical diet development for California yellowtail (CY). This is important given the great potential to expand the culture of CY commercially. The specific goals of this project are to (1) develop and validate an open formulation for the CY based on modifications of the existing commercial diet being fed to CY; (2) evaluate the response of CY to a diet with increasing levels of soy protein concentrate, and (3) evaluate the response of CY to a diet with increasing levels of soy oil as a fish oil replacement while keeping other nutritional factors constant.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2008

Author
Mark Drawbridge Allen Davis2 Dave Jirsa