Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China to demonstrate advanced fingerling to market growth performance of pacu Piractus branchypomum using a soy-maximized, all-plant protein feed. Fish were stocked in three, 4-mu (0.27-ha) ponds at a density of 800 pacu and 100 silver carp per mu (12,000 pacu and 1,500 silver per ha). Pacu grew from 149 g to an average weight of 628 g per fish in 54 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 496 kg/mu (7,440 kg/ha) for pacu and 108 kg/mu (1,620 kg/ha) for silver carp. Average survival rates for pacu and silver carp were 98.7% and 100%, respectively. The soy-maximized feed, formulated to have 32% crude protein and 6% crude fat with soybean meal as the primary protein source, yielded a FCR with pacu of 1.12:1. Non feed-taking silver carp served as a service species and provided additional fish production for added economic return. Average net economic return was RMB 1,809 per mu ($3,285/ha). Average return on investment was 59.9%. Pacu demonstrated excellent growth performance and feed conversion efficiency with the ASA soy-maximized feed and 80:20 production technology in this trial. Pacu produced were uniform in size with good body color and conformation. The demonstrated short culture cycle allows for the production of two crops of pacu per pond during a single growing season in the temperate climate of China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted near Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, to demonstrate fry to fingerling growth of pacu using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based feeds. Juvenile fish were stocked in three, 4.0-mu (0.27-ha) ponds at a density of 7,000 pacu and 1,000 silver carp per mu (105,000 pacu and 15,000 silver carp per hectare). Pacu grew from 1.6 g to an average weight of 22 g per fish in 59 days of feeding, with an average FCR of 0.50:1.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of pacu Piractus branchypomum using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all-plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 4-mu ponds at a density of 900 pacu and 100 silver carp per mu. Pacu grew from 40 g to an average weight of 497 g per fish in 80 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 443 kg/mu for pacu and 102 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for pacu and silver carp were 99% and 98%, respectively. The soy-based feed yielded a FCR with pacu of 1.24:1. Average net economic return was RMB 715 permu. Average return on investment (ROI) was 31.2%. This compared to an FCR of 2.84:1 with the farm’s traditional feed, which yielded an ROI of –8.6%. Pacu demonstrated excellent growth performance and feed conversion efficiency with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology in this trial. Pacu produced in the trial were uniform in size with good body color and conformation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Fourteen pond trials were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to assess the fingerling to market growth of crucian carp, pacu, tilapia and wuchang carp (bream) with a variety of aquafeed formulations. The objective of the trials was to test and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of production of these species in 80:20 culture systems with feeds formulated primarily from plant proteins. An all-plant protein diet (‘J’) was tested against similar diets (‘H’ and ‘K’) containing primarily plant protein and 5% fish meal.

The all-plant protein ‘J’ diet produced as good or better growth than the ‘H’ diet containing fish meal with crucian carp. Crucian carp of approximately 50 g grew to an average of 227 g in six trials. The production target of 250 g was reached in only two trials. Float and sink forms of the test diets produced inconsistent results. Observations indicate crucian carp are not aggressive feeders and may require training at the fry to fingerling stage to readily adapt to floating feeds. Economic return with crucian carp was highly variable.

Pacu reached the production target of >400 g in two trials conducted and with all three diets tested (‘H’, ‘J’ and ‘K’). There was no difference in pacu growth among the test diets, or among floating and sinking forms of the ‘H’ diet. Feed conversion ratios of 1.2-1.6 indicated rapid and economical growth of pacu on all diets.

Nile tilapia growth was best on the ‘K’ diet, although tilapia grew rapidly on both the ‘J’ and ‘K’ diets tested in one trial in 1995. Average daily growth rates were 8.3% and 9.7% of body weight, respectively, with 31-g fingerlings growing to 355-410 g in 126 days. A 1996 trial stocked fingerlings of 6 g that were unable to attain market size by the end of the production season. There was no growth difference of fingerlings with the ‘J’ and ‘H’ feeds.

Bream growth was also better on the ‘K’ diet, with only minor variations in growth among the ‘H’ and ‘J’ diets in three trials. Floating feeds produced better growth than sinking feeds with bream. Average bream growth, feed conversion ratio and economic return with the three diets was 356 g, 1.8 and Y3255/mu.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1996

Author
H.R. Schmittou, Zhang Jian and M.C. Cremer