Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

A comparison feeding demonstration on grass carp density was jointly conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC), in cooperation with the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province. The feeding demonstration was conducted at the Yongji Municipal Fish Stock Farm, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the production performance of grass carp at two different stocking densities using the USSEC 80:20 pond production technology, 32/31extruded soybased feed and improved aeration system.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

An in-pond raceway system to intensify pond aquaculture production demonstration was jointly conducted by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) program, in collaboration with the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries Extension Center and Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co., Ltd. to evaluate the technical and economic feasibilities of the in-pond raceway aquaculture (IPA) technology. The IPA technology was first developed in the United States as a means to increase fish production in the conventional pond units by culturing fish in confined raceway with aerated flowing water and removing fish metabolic wastes. Removal of the solid wastes significantly increases fish production by three times as compared to the conventional 80:20 pond culture technology. The technology was first transferred to China by USSEC through a cooperative project funded by the Iowa Soybean Association and tested at the Pingwang Fish Farm of the Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/7 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the Yangtze River Delta that an all-plant protein fingerling feed would yield the equivalent tilapia production and performance as a high fishmeal inclusion feed. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to formulate without fishmeal, which is limited in availability with increasing price, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the Yangtze River Delta that an all-plant protein fingerling feed would yield the equivalent tilapia production and performance as a high fishmeal inclusion feed. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to formulate without fishmeal, which is limited in availability with increasing price, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond Feeding demonstration was conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center and the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center to show the effectiveness of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed for grass carp. The demonstration was conducted at the Demo Farm of the Datong Municipal Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the north region of China that a protein fingerling feed could be used to culture grass carp fingerlings. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The American Soybean Association-International Marketing (ASA-IM), in cooperation with the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center conducted a grass carp feeding demonstration with the zero water discharge technology. The objective of the feeding demo was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibilities of producing over 2.0-kg grass carp using the ASA-IM formulated 32/31 extruded soymeal-based feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Jiangsu Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center, and the Pingwang State Fish Farm, Jiangsu Province, in collaboration with the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science (NIES) to demonstrate the productivity, economic, and environmental advantages of the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology with ASA-IM formulated extruded soybased feed in comparison to a local sinking feed. The feeding trial was conducted on the Demonstration Farm of Wujiang Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Jiangsu Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Wanzhou District Fishery Association, Chongqing, China, to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp in Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cages with the ASA-IM 32/31 soymeal-based growout feed. The objective of the LVHD grass carp feeding demonstration was to demonstrate the production performance of grass carp with the ASA-IM formulated 32/3 extruded soybased feed without any supplementary grass in the Xintian Reservoir, Wanzhou District, Chongqing.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

Feeding trials in outdoor fish production ponds were conducted in 2008 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center and Shenyang Municipal Fishery Research Institute to show the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/7 1 fingerling feed for grass carp. The trials were conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in the northeastern region of China that an all-plant protein fingerling feed could be used to culture grass carp fingerlings. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2008

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A three-year series of feeding trials was conducted to demonstrate the production, economic, and environmental advantages of the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology and soy-based feed in comparison to a Chinese polyculture technology. Comparison trials conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2008 were conducted in a complex of six, 0.8-ha ponds in Jiangsu Province, China. Grass carp and silver carp were the fed and service species in the 80:20 system, with grass carp fed the extruded ASA-IM 32/3 feed, formulated on average with 45% soybean meal and 11% soy hulls. Grass, crucian, bighead and silver carps, plus wuchang bream, were stocked in the polyculture ponds, and were fed a 28% crude protein, local sinking feed together with fresh grass.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2008

Author
Michael C. Cremer*, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A series of feeding trials was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Taixing Fish Stock Farm of Jiangsu Province, the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Hainan Fish Breeding Center of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, and the Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Lab of the Feed Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to evaluate a soy protein fingerling feed for key cultured freshwater fish species in China. The soy protein fingerling feed used soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a replacement for fishmeal in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed. Feeding trials comparing the standard ASA-IM 36/7 feed with fishmeal (36/7 FM) and the soy protein 36/7 feed with SPC (36/7 SPC) were conducted during the 2007 aquaculture production season at five locations in China with common carp, grass carp, tilapia and channel catfish. The objectives of replacing fishmeal with SPC in the fingerling feed were: 1) to provide feed millers with an option to fishmeal as a means to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal; and 2) to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A fish feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS/ICD), the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES) of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), and the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries Extension Center (JFEC) to demonstrate the productivity, economic, and environmental advantages of the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology in comparison to a Chinese polyculture technology that used a combination of local feed and fresh grass. The feeding trial was conducted on a commercial fish farm in the Yangzhong area of Jiangsu Province, China. The trial was managed by the ASA-IM aquaculture program and JFEC, in collaboration with FAS and SEPA.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

The second year of a three-year cooperative pond feeding trial series was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS/ICD), the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES) of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), and the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries Extension Center (JFEC) to demonstrate the productivity, economic, and environmental advantages of the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology in comparison to a Chinese polyculture technology that used a combination of local sinking feed and fresh grass. The feeding trial was conducted on a commercial fish farm in the Yangzhong area of Jiangsu Province, China. The trial was managed by the ASA-IM aquaculture program and JFEC, in collaboration with FAS and SEPA.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A cage feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Nanning Municipal Fishery Extension Center to evaluate the feasibility of culturing grass carp in cages with the ASA-IM soy-based grass carp feed. The feeding trial was conducted at Heng Xian Reservoir in Guangxi Province and compared grass carp growth in 4-m3 LVHD1 cages and 16-m3 traditional cages with feed only and with feed plus grass. The trial was designed to assess the feasibility of intensive grass carp culture in cages for application in reservoirs throughout China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding trail was conducted in Li Yu Tang Reservoir in Guangxi Province to evaluate production of grass carp in LVHD cages with a soy-based, all-plant protein feed formulated by the American Soybean Association. Grass carp were stocked in three, 4.0-m3 cages at a density of 100 fish per m3. Grass carp grew from 198 g to an average weight of 700 g per fish in 109 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 66.8 kg/m3. Average survival rate for grass carp was 95.3%. Average FCR was 1.83:1. Grass carp growth was erratic in the 4-m3 LVHD cages. This erratic growth resulted from frequent halting of feeding in response to a combination of storm conditions and local electro-fishing operations that were conducted immediately adjacent to the cages by local fishermen. The grass carp were fed only 109 of 139 days during the culture period. Despite the variable feeding response, grass carp were 17% larger at harvest than the 600-g target size. The average fish biomass of 67.8 kg/m3 at harvest was nearly 40% higher than with traditional practices. Results from the trial indicate potential for LVHD cage culture of grass carp, but a follow-on evaluation is needed to fully assess the feasibility of the LVHD technology for culturing grass carp in cages with the ASA soy-based diet.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of grass carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soy-maximized grass carp feed. Fish were stocked in three, 2.4-mu (0.16-ha) ponds at a density of 500 grass carp and 100 silver carp per mu (7,500 grass carp and 1,500 silver carp per ha). Grass carp grew from 87 g to an average weight of 1,126 g per fish in 108 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 535 kg/mu (8,025kg/ha) for grass carp and 136 kg/mu (2,036 kg/ha) for silver carp. Average survival rates for grass carp and silver carp were 95% and 100%, respectively. Grass carp FCR with the all-plant protein, soy-maximized feed averaged 1.13:1. Average net economic return was RMB 1,674 per mu ($3,040/ha) at market prices of RMB 8.4/kg ($1.02/kg) for grass carp and RMB 3.2/kg ($0.39/kg) for silver carp. Return on investment (ROI) for the three demonstration ponds averaged 51.4%. Grass carp exhibited rapid growth, aggressive feeding behavior and efficient FCR with a soy-maximized feed formulated with standard soybean meal (44% crude protein) and soy hulls as the primary feed
ingredients.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian