USSEC – Southeast Asia (SEA), led by Lukas Manomaitis, USSEC Aquaculture Program Lead Technical Consultant – SEA; Levy Loreto L. Manalac, USSEC Technical Consultant, Aquaculture – Philippines; Pamudi, USSEC Technical Consultant, Aquaculture – Indonesia; and Hsiang Pin Lan, USSEC Asia Marine Specialist, Aquaculture – SEA, together with international speakers helped the Philippines to develop a sustainable, high-volume, export-focused marine fish aquaculture sector in a workshop conducted on May 8 at the Marco Polo Ortigas Hotel in Pasig City, Philippines.
According to Mr. Manomaitis, USSEC has been working with the marine fish aquaculture sector in Philippines for the past few years and anticipates that the current industry will become larger scale and will produce a large volume of marine fish products. In order for this to succeed, the industry will have to focus on extra-regional sales of product and not primarily on intra-regional trade (national or SEA regional sales). This workshop aimed to inform, educate, and discuss important topics as the Southeast Asian marine fish aquaculture industry starts to develop larger scale production.
During the workshop the invited resource speakers presented the following topics:
- Roy C. Ortega, OIC of IFAD of DA-BFAR, discussed the Philippines Fishery government current policy and future policy plans for marine fish aquaculture.
- Manomaitis provided an introduction to USSEC and discussed the seminar topic and workshop program.
- Matt Brooker, business development manager of The Fishin’ Company in the U.S., presented requirements for a company’s entry into a marine fish export market including how a species market is developed or expanded (if already existing), format, volume, quality, certifications, and challenges and opportunities.
- Elsie Tech, vice president South Luzon, Hi-VAP Inc. and technical consultant of Palawan Aquaculture Corp., discussed and introduced HI-VAP Inc. and how they see the marine fish industry in the next five years.
- Pamudi gave an introduction to the ideas of standards setting and certification bodies for marine fish export market.
- Isidor Yu, farm assurer, GlobalGAP, discussed the importance of standards and certifications for aquaculture products and for export products in particular.
- Lourdes Tanco, managing director of MIDA Trade Ventures International Inc., talked about how Philippine marine fish producers may need to link to the processing and export industry for smooth development of the industry.
This workshop was highlighted by the four different sectors in four breakout sessions where they discussed and addressed the following:
- Import related: What is the best way to link to markets, identify products and encourage buyers to look at SEA marine fish production?
- Certification related: What are the key concerns with regards to standards/certifications that may impact a move to an export marine fish aquaculture industry?
- Government: What actions in the short/medium/long term are needed to support an export marine fish aquaculture industry?
- Industry actions: What changes need to occur within the current industry to move to export volumes? How will feeds be a part of this?
The workshop was attended by 36 marine fish farmers and company, aquaculture feedmills, seafood importers and exporters, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and other government agencies, members of Philippine Association of Fish Producers Inc. (PAFPI), Philippine Milkfish Industry Group Inc. (PhilMIG), High Value Aqua Philippines Inc. (Hi-VAP), fish cage manufacturers, and other aquaculture stakeholders in Philippines.
USSEC held one-on-one workshops in Morocco May 7-10 to further expand knowledge on aquafeed, fish nutrition, and production.
Escorted by USSEC consultant – Morocco Khalid Benabdeljelil, USSEC consultant Tim O’Keefe, president of Aqua-Food Technologies, Inc., visited with several operators in the aquafeed industry to address specific issues.
Extensive fishing of small wild fish species caught and transformed into fishmeal and oil for aquafeed needs pushes feed manufacturers to look for alternative ways to face ecological, economical, and nutritional challenges.
A strong reliance on fishmeal and oil as sources of nutrients for farm-raised fish is not sustainable. Reducing dependence on fish oil and meal and developing alternative sources of protein and oil contributes to the success of the aquaculture industry.
Soy-based aquafeed helps reduce the “fish-in: fish-out” ratio in the production of major farm-raised fish species. U.S. soybean meal and soy protein concentrate inclusion in sustainable feed can produce wholesome nutritious fish for Morocco’s growing market.
Formulating high performance soy-based feed for Mediterranean fish species on sound nutritional considerations were among the issues discussed with major feed producers, as well as the current challenge in finding alternative sources.
As new aquaculture projects are being developed, growing sustainably ultimately builds opportunities for U.S. Soy products in aquafeed.
USSEC hosted its annual seminar on cost effective aquafeed formulations and aquafeed manufacturing in Egypt. A total of 80 participants attended the event, representing the top aquaculture feed mills and aqua producers.
Bret Tate, U.S. Agricultural Attaché – Cairo, opened the seminar. In his opening speech, Mr. Tate pointed out the importance of the agricultural and trade relationships between Egypt and the United States and stressed the win-win opportunity presented by the aquaculture industry, which utilizes large quantities of soy.
Egypt imports approximately 4 million metric tons (MMT) of soy, mainly soybeans along with some soybean meal. Historically, 50 percent of the beans are of U.S. origin.
During the week of the seminar, the USSEC team conducted one-on-one industry visits with aqua feed mills to provide the necessary support for adoption of least cost formulation and the benefits that arise from formulating with U.S. Soy.
USSEC consultant Tim O’Keefe, keynote speaker at the event, praised the sequence of the seminar. The morning session provided an opportunity for the participants to gain an understanding of the nutritional requirements of tilapia. The session that followed was delivered by USSEC Regional Project Manager – EU / (Middle East – North Africa (MENA) Sirri Kayan, who provided participants with the opportunity to apply that knowledge using an interactive model that allowed them to share in the formulation process. The participants helped in formulating a number of diets while applying different ingredients on least cost software to demonstrate the value of U.S. Soy.
Guest speaker Dr. G. Ramesh of Wenger delivered a presentation on the manufacturing process of marine diets and the new developments in the area of marine diet formulation. The presentation revolved around the critical factors in marine diet formulation including the high inclusion rates of fat and the ability of different types of equipment to handle fat inclusion rates including, single screw extruders and double screw as well as the advantages of high intensity pre conditioner. He applauded the level of interaction and interest of the participants, saying they were “reactive, very interested, and highly engaged. Clearly the aquaculture industry is growing rapidly.”
Ned Williams from Ever-Extruder spoke about the background and history of his company and Carbide technology advantages and industries. Mr. Williams also presented new and innovative technology for dyes, knives, drive hubs, extruder alignment, and support for high efficacy and SSDS innovation for real time density control. Mr. Williams commented that this seminar and similar USSEC activities that take part around the world is truly a global effort on the part of USSEC and provides the opportunity for global exposure for U.S. companies seeking international markets.
Hussein Mansour of Aller Aqua delivered the final presentation of the seminar. His presentation revolved around future perspectives in the Egyptian aqua industry, mainly the complete replacement of fishmeal by soy in tilapia diets, as well as the global trend of aquaculture as a replacement of wild catch. Mr. Hussein also explained the importance of fish protein for the Egyptian market. Current per capita consumption is almost 21 kilograms (kg). He added that while Egypt is one of the top producers in the world of aquaculture products, most of the fish is sold on the spot market; Mr. Hussein explained that in the future, processing will play a major role in the development of the industry. During his presentation, he explained the importance of increased customer awareness of the quality of farmed tilapia and the initiative that is currently being adopted by the industry to produce a generic brand under the name Egyptian Tilapia.
USSEC – Southeast Asia conducted in-house seminars and visits to several aquaculture feedmills in the Philippines to address different issues in their feedmill productions and aquaculture feed formulations from February 21 – 23.
Levy Loreto L. Manalac, USSEC Technical Consultant, Aquaculture – Philippines and Mark Newman, USSEC Feedmill and Nutrition Consultant, led this effort. In order to properly address each aqua feedmill issue, USSEC requested pre-questionnaires from each feedmill to guide USSEC during the in-house seminar.
Mr. Newman presented and discussed extrusion principles and equipment in aquaculture feed production; feeds and feeding management; and milkfish and tilapia nutrition, including the use of U.S. Soy products to reduce the amount of fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture feeds at the Davao South Feedmill Corporation (Vitarich Feed Corp. third party toll milling partner), Philippine Foremost Milling Corp., and CJ Phils.
At Santeh Feeds Corp. Mr. Newman presented and discussed nutrition and feeds for marine shrimp, processing sinking feeds for shrimp, and current manufacturing trends.
38 feedmill staff, Q&A staff, and managers from four different aquaculture feedmills in Philippines attended the in-house seminar.
About 15,000 of the 23,000 floating net cages (FNCs) in Jatiluhur Reservoir in Purwakarta Regency, West Java, Indonesia began to be removed early last month and will continue to be removed until February 2018. The remaining cages will then be partially removed until the end of next year. An excessive number of cages, up to six times the allowable number, has been blamed for threatening the water supply for Jakarta and Java-Bali’s power supply. Purwakarta Regent Deddy Mulyadi initiated this action.
FNC aquaculture, which mostly produces common carp, started in the reservoir in 1988 and has been a dilemmatic industry in Purwakarta. With an annual production of 70,000 tons per year, involving 3,636 farm households and with a potential estimated tax of $90.2 million (USD) per year, the industry claimed to boost the local economy. However, among those cages, only 3,000 FNCs were officially registered and the registrations expired last year, while the rest were illegal, threatening the water supply and Java-Bali’s power supply.
Although many fish farmers complained about the action, they do not have any right to reject or sue the local government because they established the cages illegally and were instructed to remove them a couple years ago. The farmers now need alternative jobs to make a living. The local government has proposed that the reservoir could be an attractive tourist water spot, involving most of the former cage fish farmers to manage the spot without disrupting the reservoir’s sustainability.
USSEC’s aquaculture program has considered the Jatiluhur and other Indonesian reservoirs for sustainable, environmental-friendly aquaculture, farming the land and sustaining the sea and other water bodies.
As part of the study to improve marketing of Egyptian aquaculture products, a wrap up workshop was held on April 18 at the Conrad Hotel in Cairo, entitled “Improved Marketing of Egyptian Aquaculture Products.” Forty participants attended the event. They included fish farmers (both freshwater and marine), traders, feed mill operators, researchers, and some development partners.
The workshop aimed to present the findings of the study undertaken by Ian Goulding and Maggie Kamel to “Characterize and Improve Distribution of Aquaculture Products in Egypt.” The seminar was divided into four sessions: analysis and key findings of the study; recommendations to improve marketing; guidelines for handling of aquaculture products; and discussion.
Based on a SWOT analysis of the aquaculture sector, Goulding drew recommendations for both the private sector, centering around developing new marketing channels through investment in processing and distribution infrastructure; improving safety, hygiene and handling conditions; improved organization of the sector (strengthened association of aquaculture operators); and generic marketing support.
Participants actively engaged in a vibrant discussion over the recommendations. They agreed on the need for establishing an organization to better represent the interests of the sector and lead some of the marketing activities required to support the sector. They also discussed potential technical assistance activities that could be extended by development partners such as training and study tours.
USSEC recently launched a post-harvest and fish hygiene study in Egypt. The study, which is being carried out by Megapesce, aims to improve the market opportunities for Egyptian aquaculture products. Currently, Egypt ranks eighth globally in terms of aquaculture production. However, the post-harvest, cold chain, and processing infrastructure are minimal to non-existent, putting downward price pressure on Egyptian aquaculture products that have to sold in the spot market that operates entirely as fresh produce with no opportunities for freezing and processing, which typically allows the excess product to maintain value. Consequently, Egypt suffers from seasonality of supply.
This study will identify opportunities to increase the value for Egyptian aquaculture products by creating the means for extending the shelf life of fish and a sustainable price.
USSEC participated in the 2017 Seafood Expo North America/Seafood Processing North America in Boston, Massachusetts from March 17 -21.
On March 17, USSEC held its Aquaculture Advisory Council Meeting. Attendees heard a summary of USSEC’s aquaculture program, key issues, and council strategy recommendations. The first council meeting was reviewed, along with USSEC’s implementation of recommended strategies, followed by a discussion of strategy implementation.
Sector updates were provided for many topics, including: shrimp; marine fish; freshwater fish; aquafeed; sustainability certification; basic research; and applied research. A discussion about industry challenges and opportunities, “What Can the Soy Industry Do to Best Move the Needle Forward?” followed.
American Soybean Association (ASA) director Jeff Sollars and United Soybean Board (USB) director Robert White traveled to Boston to participate in the Seafood Expo North America from March 19-21.
According to its website, Seafood Expo North America/Seafood Processing North America is North America’s largest seafood exposition. Thousands of buyers and suppliers from around the world attend the annual, three-day exposition to meet, network and do business. Attending buyers represent importers, exporters, wholesalers, restaurants, supermarkets, hotels, and other retail and foodservice companies. Exhibiting suppliers offer the newest seafood products, processing and packaging equipment, and services available in the seafood market.
The USSEC booth promoted the inclusion of U.S. Soy products in aquafeed.
USSEC’s aquaculture program in Southeast Asia is the centerpiece of SeafoodSource.com’s story, “Offshore Aquaculture Taking Off in Southeast Asia.” USSEC Aquaculture Program Lead Technical Consultant – SEA Lukas Manomaitis recently spoke to the publication about training and promotion programs to promote the use of U.S. Soy in aquaculture in key producing countries including Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
Mr. Manomaitis discussed rising interest in offshore aquaculture, which species have the best potential for offshore aquaculture, and the growth in offshore cage aquaculture, among other topics.
To read the article in its entirety, please click here.
SeafoodSource.com’s website provides seafood buyers and sellers worldwide with in-depth news and information.
USSEC – Southeast Asia (SEA) held its 2017 USSEC Aquaculture Feed Nutrition Workshop in Davao City, Mindanao, Philippines on February 20.
Levy Loreto L. Manalac, USSEC Technical Consultant, Aquaculture – Philippines and Mark Newman, USSEC Feedmill and Nutrition Consultant, led the workshop. Mr. Newman presented how to utilize U.S. Soy products to reduce the amount of fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture feeds, information on milkfish nutrition, and how to maximize the value of feed ingredients in a high priced environment. Mr. Manalac introduced USSEC Soy in Aquaculture in SEA and the Philippines, and presented USSEC’s results on a milkfish feeding demonstration in the Philippines.
23 feedmill staff, salespeople, and managers from different aquaculture feedmills in Mindanao attended the workshop, in addition to representatives from a fisheries institution and a feed additive company.
USSEC worked closely with the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) to arrange a visit to a fish farm in Egypt for members of the U.S. Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies on February 22.
The visit included the following members from the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies: Rachel Santos, professional staff; Carlisle Clarke, majority clerk; Patrick Carroll, professional staff; and Jessica Schulken, minority clerk.
The visit also included members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) / FAS: Chris Church, Director, Legislative Affairs; Ronald Verdonk, Minister-Counselor; and Dr. Ahmed Wally, Agricultural Specialist.
Essam el Barabary, a prominent member of the Egyptian aquaculture industry, hosted the visitors at his farm in Burg el Arab outside of Alexandria.
Hussain Mansour, chief executive of Aller Aqua Egypt, an Egyptian-Danish partnership company, also attended the tour. Aller Aqua is among the top aqua feed producers in Egypt with a production capacity up to 150,000 metric tons of extruded feed, making the company the largest feed producer in Egypt.
During the visit, Mr. Essam explained the production strategy for the farm and the advantage of having good water quality. He explained that water quality at the farm has enabled him to produce a variety of fish species including tilapia, mullet, sea bass, and European eel. Mr. Essam said that the feed for the farm is supplied predominantly from Aller Aqua.
Mr. Hussain explained that Egypt ranks eighth in terms of world aquaculture production, second in the production of tilapia, and first in mullet production. He also stressed the importance of using high quality raw material in feed production and that his preference to use U.S. soybean meal is for its digestibility and consistent quality. He stated that the quality attributes of U.S. soybean meal are clearly visible upon physical evaluation of the product.
During the discussion, Mr. Hussain pointed out that digestibility of U.S. soybean meal, measured by protein solubility (KOH) was clearly demonstrated during a feed trial that was conducted during 2013, which was sponsored by USSEC and implemented at WorldFish. At that time, Aller Aqua produced the feed according to the parameters and formulation provided by USSEC, primarily the use of U.S soybean meal in the diet. Mr. Hussain went on to explain that the growth rate achieved during the trial is due to the highly digestible protein content of U.S. soybeans.
USSEC Country Representative – Egypt Salah Taher, who organized the visit together with USDA/FAS, explained to the committee members that building a preference for U.S. Soy in the Egyptian aquaculture industry is a continuous effort that the USSEC team has been promoting through close cooperation with the aqua industry. Seminars, feed trials, and one-on-one technical visits are among the tools used by USSEC to demonstrate the advantage of using U.S. Soy.
Mr. Taher went on to explain the scale of the Egyptian aquaculture, an industry that produces 1.2 million metric tons (MMT) of fish annually and is the primary source of protein for 90 million Egyptians. Per capita consumption of fish is currently 21 kilograms (kg) higher than the per capita world average, which is approximately 19 kg.
Mr. Essam also hosted a luncheon, which was served in a traditional Egyptian tent. During lunch, Mr. Essam and his colleagues presented a number of general topics, including the importance of developing a cold chain and cold storage to overcome the price fluctuation that results from seasonality of supply.
USSEC recently hosted a seminar in Egypt to introduce the principles of quality analysis in soybeans to the country’s aquafeed industry. A total of 60 participants attended the event, representing the top aquaculture feed mill and aqua produces.
Ronald Verdonk, Minster-Counselor, Foreign Agricultural Services (FAS) Cairo inaugurated the seminar. In his opening speech, Mr. Verdonk stressed the importance of the agriculture and trade relationships between Egypt and the United States and the role that FAS plays in promoting U.S agriculture exports. He also applauded the developments that the Egyptian aquaculture industry has witnessed in the last decade, citing the rapid and continuous development of the sector.
USSEC consultant Dr. Jan van Eys, the keynote speaker at the event, commented, “It is a delight to come back to Egypt and see the progress being made in aqua production and the feed industry in general. Many challenges remain but there is a clear and discernable progress in the understanding of the key areas that contribute to efficient aqua and livestock production. This is very clear where it concerns the feed industry and the utilization of ingredients such as soy products. Control of ingredient quality and formulation have clearly become key components of improved feed production and thus of the livestock productivity of as a whole and aqua production in particular. USSEC has greatly contributed to this positive development and logically sees its efforts rewarded in a continuous increase in the use of U.S.-originated soy products.”
During the seminar, Professor Mohamed Fathy Osman delivered a presentation on fish nutrition and highlighted the difference between crude protein, digestible protein, and amino acid profile when formulating a least-cost diet. Professor Fathy also stressed the importance of cooking raw materials and extrusion technology as a method of improving digestibility and feed efficacy.
Guest speaker Dr. Alaa Badr, product manager at Skretting Nutreco, concluded the seminar by delivering a presentation on the importance of quality control in feed production. He stressed the impact of high quality raw material in the manufacturing process to guarantee high quality feed.
Dr. Badr also highlighted the importance of traceability of ingredients as well as the final product. Quality standards for different raw materials and the importance of controlling the inflow of raw material by using near infrared (NIR) as a method for accurate formulation and controlling the quality of received raw materials and final product, while minimizing the risk of mycotoxins by using rapid analysis method when receiving raw materials. This is a standard procedure conducted before manufacturing to protect the quality of the final product.
In the days following the seminar, the USSEC team conducted three one-on-one industry visits with aquafeed mills to provide the necessary support for the adoption of soy quality parameters in feed manufacturing.
The second SFERA conference “Fish 2017” (Fish processing and aquaculture technologies) took place during the first week of February, in Moscow, Russian Federation. The publishing house SFERA from St. Petersburg and the All-Russian Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography were co-organizers of the event. Approximately 200 registered, national, and international scientists, nutritionists, and representatives of the feed industry attended the two-day conference. Speakers came from Russia and from several other European countries.
Besides the exchange of research, results, and scientific data, the conference aimed at exchanging and reviewing successful experiences of national and foreign companies in their establishment and further development in Russia. Representatives from the executive and legislative branches of the federal and regional governments were also present. Consequently, regulatory aspects of the aquaculture sector were discussed along with the various development programs for Russian regions. The aquaculture industry is clearly a priority for the Russian federal government and its regional governments. This is hardly surprising given the tremendous capacity and potential of aquaculture in Russia.
The papers presented at the conference addressed the characteristic issues associated with the rapid growth of a new industry from technical, marketing, and legal points of view. Animated discussions followed the presentations.
USSEC was a major sponsor of the conference and two USSEC consultants, Dr. Iani Chihaia and Dr. Jan van Eys, spoke at the event. Dr. van Eys presented a paper, “Innovations in the Area of Technologies and Feeding of Industrial Fish Production,” emphasizing the potential of soy products to replace fishmeal in aqua formulations. Dr. Chihaia presented a paper entitled “Optimization of the Use of Ingredients in Aquaculture Feeds; Nutritional, Biological, and Technological Properties for Proper Application, Balancing, and Manufacturing.” The main issues of the USSEC presentations were published in Russian language in corresponding articles in SFERA FISH magazine distributed during the conference and released on the SFERA website.
The issue of the use of soy products to replace fishmeal is of major concern and interest for Russian fish producers and since much of their current and future production concentrates on fresh water species, the potential for the use of soy products in fish feed is important. The superior quality of soy relative to other plant protein – even locally produced – is well recognized and appreciated.
USSEC visited different marine fish farms in the Philippines to provide technical support and suggestions to improve their efficiency and production. USSEC was able to discuss and show on site proper feed management using the satiation setting technique using extruded floating feed.
USSEC was able to provide additional knowledge and information in marine fish hatchery biosecurity and production improvement, and proper fish culture management and feeding management to marine fish cage operators in Luzon and Mindanao, Philippines.
When it comes to commercial aquaculture, a lot of people have some legitimate concerns – fish farms can introduce antibiotics, anti-algal chemicals, and concentrated fish waste into the ocean. Escaped fish can upset the local ecological balance, and wild fish still need to be caught in large numbers as a food source for some species of farmed fish. While there have been recent efforts to address the first two concerns, the fish-in-the-fish-food problem is now being taken on in two different research projects, which are aimed at replacing the fish content in fish feed with more sustainable ingredients. Scientists at Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have spent the past ten years developing a feed additive that does away with those fishy ingredients, a diet of microbes for prawns.
Traditionally, farmed prawns have been fed pellets that contain some fishmeal and fish oil. These are included mainly to help the animals grow large quickly. The additive contains marine microorganisms that have been bred in captivity, and which have been shown to play a crucial role in prawns’ growth process. In a large-scale field test, the product was mixed with an existing commercial feed (taking the place of the usual fish meal and oil), then used in ponds at an Australian prawn farm. According to CSIRO, the additive-consuming black tiger prawns grew an average of 30 percent faster than their regular-food-eating counterparts, plus they were healthier.
Meanwhile, scientists at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science have developed an alternative feed that consists entirely of plant-based ingredients. Fishmeal and oil are commonly used in the pellets eaten by carnivorous fish such as sea bream and striped bass. Instead of fishmeal, the experimental new feed includes corn, wheat, and soy. Taking the place of fish oil is a combination of lipids (fatty acids) from algae, amino acid supplements, and soybean or canola oil. Not only have test fish apparently thrived on the feed, but their flesh reportedly also has polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and mercury levels that are a hundred times lower than those found in fish consuming regular pellets containing wild-caught fish. This would allow consumers to eat striped bass twice a week, as opposed to the once every two weeks currently recommended.
In 2015, Egypt’s aquaculture industry produced 1.3 million metric tons (MMT) of fish, consuming approximately 1 million tons of soybean meal. As the industry grows, the Egyptian economy faces new challenges.
In November 2016, the Egyptian pound, which was traditionally pegged to the U.S. dollar, was floated; that move has reduced the value of the pound by almost 50 percent, impacting the price of ingredients for the aqua industry and, consequently, the price of aqua feed.
To assist the Egyptian aqua industry, USSEC consultant Tim O’Keefe of Aqua-Food Technologies, traveled to Egypt to meet with top aquafeed producers to provide insights on least cost formulations as a means to control the soaring prices of feed.
USSEC Aquaculture Contractor – Egypt Salah Taher accompanied Mr. O’Keefe during his visit. The two met with representatives from Skretting, Aller Aqua, Cairo Poultry Group, and Koudjis Kapo.
Through these meetings, the team learned that the prices of fish have increased to meet the increasing cost production. The Egyptian aquaculture market is expected to continue growing at 8 to 10 percent each year as Egyptians continue to favor the consumption of fish over poultry and beef.
The Egyptian per capita consumption of fish in 2015 accounted for 21 kilograms (kg) per capita higher than the world average, which is approximately 19 kg per capita.
A second visit is scheduled in May 2017 to deliver training on least cost formulations for aqua feeds.