USSEC was featured in the March / April edition of International Aquafeed Magazine. The story focused specifically on USSEC’s “Soy in Aquaculture” project in Southeast Asia, which began in 2002. The program works with aquaculture feedmills, government agencies, industry associations, and fish and shrimp producers to promote sustainable, feed-based aquaculture in the SE Asian region. The program also highlights the benefits of U.S. soy products in particular, focusing on the reliability, consistency and technical support that only U.S. soy can offer. The magazine article concentrates on the success story of Marcela Farms in the Philippines, where USSEC has had great success in promoting a low cost, soy optimized diet for tiger and white shrimp.
International Aquafeed Magazine is published six times yearly and is based in the United Kingdom. The publication’s key focus is scientific research and development in nutrition within the aquaculture industry and the technology that can commercialize these products. Founded in 1998, the magazine is published in print and online with social media presence on Facebook, Twitter, and an online blog, “The Aquaculturists.”
USSEC Southeast Asia Technical Director – Aquaculture Lukas Manomaitis recently traveled to Cambodia to learn about that country’s aquaculture industry and specifically to visit the Marine Aquaculture Research and Development Center (MARDeC), which is Cambodia’s only marine fish hatchery site. Mr. Manomaitis was contacted by the World Aquaculture Society’s Somony Thay, Deputy Director of MARDeC. This hatchery is a Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) -funded project and has the potential, if properly operated, to supply not only the needs of Cambodia, but also Thailand and Vietnam, due to its proximity to marine production areas in both eastern Thailand and western Vietnam.
Based on Mr. Manomaitis’ observations, Cambodia is unlikely to be a target for USSEC’s efforts for some time to come (the projected 2019 target is just 185,000 MT of aquaculture product). There is, however, a strong interest in learning better approaches, both for general culture and, specifically, for feed-based marine fish culture. Currently, both the government and the industry lack knowledge in best management approaches and the value of using feeds as compared to trash fish-based systems. For this reason, USSEC’s visit was well-timed to introduce the concepts for better culture and aquafeed use to an audience searching for better approaches.
The information provided by USSEC during this visit to government workers and farmers in the industry was much appreciated. Mr. Thay remarked that the training and discussion of hatchery management was of particular value and that he expected to see significant changes in MARDeC’s future approach. The proper management, development and ultimate success of this hatchery will provide positive results for the local and regional marine fish industry.
USSEC participated at the International Seafood Show in Boston, Massachusetts in March. USB Director and grower leader from Virginia Robert White, together with USSEC staff, including aquaculture’s Mike Cremer and Colby Sutter, Americas region consultant Jairo Amezquita, consultants from USSEC China, displayed a booth promoting the use of U.S. soy products in aquaculture. Over 1000 exhibiting companies from around the world participated in this show, which was attended by seafood producers and representatives from the retail and food service industry.
The USSEC consultants held several meetings with customers during the show persuading them to increase the consumption of U.S. soy products in their operations; prospects were also persuaded to work together to develop other promotional activities in aquaculture such as feeding demonstrations and technical assistance visits to their facilities. These discussions yielded more than twelve serious business contacts. USSEC consultants also addressed the concerns of visitors to the booth regarding the use and applications of U.S. soy products in aquaculture. Visitors to the USSEC booth received technical literature along with promotional gifts.
The participation of U.S. soy growers in the International Seafood Show and at the business meetings was key for them to be cognizant of the market opportunities and future projects that will be developed in the aquaculture field in various regions.
USSEC will participate in the Asian – Pacific Aquaculture trade show, “Positioning for Profit.” This meeting will be held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from December 10-13 and will provide the aquaculture community an opportunity to learn about the latest in aquaculture growth in Southeast Asia and to experience the latest technology.
USSEC Southeast Asia Technical Director – Aquaculture Lukas Manomaitis has submitted an abstract titled “Investing in Southeast Asian Aquaculture: Where Targeted Investment Can Make a Difference for Industry and Profit for Investors” and will give an oral presentation at the meeting on this topic. Mr. Manomaitis, together with Dr. Michael Cremer, International Aquaculture Senior Program Advisor; Anthony Emms, John Lindblom, USSEC Regional Director – Southeast Asia; and Colby Sutter, International Aquaculture Marketing Manager, have been conducting a survey of the aquaculture industry in SE Asia to better learn what hinders investment in the industry and to identify where targeted investment could improve the aquaculture value chain in SE Asia.
The presentation will detail how, over the course of USSEC’s 30 year involvement in the SE Asia region, the aquaculture industry has grown but continues to be held back by critical control points in the aquaculture value chain and lack of long term thinking. The objective of the survey is to specifically identify where further investment could make the most impact and detailing the steps to be taken to encourage targeted investment by both regional and extra- regional investors. The expected benefit to the U.S. soy industry is that identified constraints could be overcome and the industry would have the increased confidence to continue moving toward high quality, feed-based systems. Soy would then see increased inclusion in feed as the primary replacement protein.
The focuses of the survey are the target nations of Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.
USSEC continues to offer educational programs advocating the benefits of soy protein based foods to Korean flounder growers.
According to Korea Aquaculture Utilization contractor In Soo Shin, USSEC’s objective is to increase demand of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) from the Korean aquaculture sector. Target audiences who learned about the attributes of SBM and SPC as a fish meal alternative through on-site visits or meetings have begun using extruded feeds containing SBM at 4-9% level by weight to replace 7-15% of fish meal. USSEC intends to increase the inclusions of SBM or SPC up to 18% (30% of fish meal).
USSEC will complement these efforts by organizing a roundtable to increase acceptance of the extruded feeds containing SBM or SPC ratios as recommended by USSEC. Korean flounder growers and aqua feed mill representatives will be invited to this roundtable, which will take place in Jeju, the largest flounder production center in Korea, on May 29.
USSEC is pleased to be a primary organizer of the 7th Asia Grain Transportation Conference, which will take place at the Westin Resort in Nusa Dua, Bali Indonesia from May 19 – 21. At this year’s conference, titled “Gaining the Competitive Edge in Agribusiness,” over 120 participants will hear from industry experts who will share perspectives on the latest developments in global agriculture, ocean transportation and international trade. In addition to the conference, attendees will also have the opportunity to attend special workshops on the following topics: Fundamentals of Futures and Commodity Pricing; Procurement Strategies ‐ Case Study on Co‐Loading, Combination Cargoes, and Buying Groups; Maintaining Product Quality for Containerized Shipments from U.S. to S.E. Asia; Fundamentals of Commodity Contracts and Resolution of Trade Disputes; and Price and Risk Management Strategies.
USSEC Regional Director – Southeast Asia John Lindblom will moderate two sessions, in addition to being a panel moderator. USSEC Chairman of the Board Randy Mann will speak on 2014 U.S. soybean crop prospects and will participate in a panel discussion. Timothy Loh, USSEC Deputy Regional Director – Southeast Asia, will moderate a workshop session focusing on procurement strategies. Additionally, many USSEC representatives from various offices worldwide are slated to represent the interests of the U.S. soy industry at this conference.
WASHINGTON, D.C. (May 2, 2013) – Key members of the U.S. agricultural value chain have joined together to applaud the work of the United States and like-minded governments to promote the importance of science-based regulations to facilitate trade of agricultural commodities derived from agricultural biotechnology.
In a joint statement, the United States was joined by the governments of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Paraguay to announce their intention to work collaboratively to remove global barriers to the trade of agricultural biotechnology and promote science-based, transparent and predictable regulatory approaches.
The American Seed Trade Association (ASTA), American Soybean Association (ASA), Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), North American Export Grain Association (NAEGA), National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and National Grain and Feed Association (NGFA) said they welcome the leadership of the U.S. government – including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the United States Trade Representative, and U.S. Department of State, as well as their counterparts in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Paraguay – in taking these steps toward greater collaboration to systematically address global barriers to trade of products derived from agricultural biotechnology.
The U.S. agriculture sector agrees that a particular area of concern is the timeliness and efficiency of global regulatory systems. In the joint statement, the like-minded governments have highlighted their intention to promote synchronization of authorizations by regulatory authorities – in particular for food, feed and processing purposes.
The six nations also stated their intention to collaborate in the development of domestic, regional and international approaches to facilitate the global management of low-level presence of biotechnology-derived commodities that are authorized in one or more countries, but not in the country of import.
Agricultural production from these six countries is a major contributor to global food security. Collectively, these countries provide the vast majority of corn and soybean supply in international markets. Production and trade in all six of these countries use modern technology, including plant biotechnology, to provide for consumers’ needs around the world.
The joint statement can be accessed via the Foreign Agricultural Service’s website: https://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/biotech/biotech_trade.asp.
ASA represents all U.S. soybean farmers on domestic and international issues of importance to the soybean industry. ASA’s advocacy efforts are made possible through voluntary farmer membership by farmers in 30 states where soybeans are grown.
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USSEC recently visited three Korean feed mills as it endeavors to stress the importance of linking amino acids to the price of soybean meal (SBM). The feed mills visited were Sunjin Co., Ltd., a swine integrator; Easy Bio Co., Ltd., a broiler integrator; and Cargill Agri Purina Co., Ltd. Staff from these mills traveled to the U.S. last October to meet with USSEC’s U.S. SBM buyers’ team. Easy Bio and Cargill Agri Purina are currently using 17,000 MT and 15,000 MT, respectively, of U.S. SBM.
While the technical staff members of the Korean feed and livestock industry already generally accept the concept that digestible amino acid is more valuable than crude protein, purchasing staff still tend to stick to crude protein-dependent purchasing decisions on SBM. USSEC technical director Kim Nill discussed with R&D, Q/C and formulation staff of the three feed mills how to change the criteria that purchasing staff use for evaluating SBM. Based on these discussions, USSEC plans to host a roundtable to educate purchasing staff about determining amino acids as the value-determining factor of SBM. USSEC’s published SBM whitepaper and the Korean Feed Association’s analysis result on imported SBMs were shared with the feed mills to differentiate U.S. SBM. Both reports indicate that U.S. SBM provides more amino acids than South American SBM.
USSEC recently provided technical assistance to a number of feed mills along with several poultry and livestock producers in Panama.
Consultant Carlos Campabadal discussed nutritional topics such as problems with fat and oil sources; issues with other protein sources; feed quality control analysis; the use of digestible amino acids for feed formulation; and feed and management programs for swine, laying hens and broilers. He also reviewed and formulated diets and differentiated the quality between soybean meals from the U.S. and those from South America. These topics were discussed with the personnel of several different companies as well as at farm and feed mills visits.
Mr. Campabadal also visited the new Panamanian Swine Production Association to present a conference, “New Concepts in the Sow Feeding Program.” This organization was formed by 25 swine producers who control 80% of all pigs in the country. This consultant also participated in another seminar organized by this same association in Santiago de Veraguas where he facilitated two additional conferences discussing nutrition and management topics in addition to issues encountered by the Panamanian Swine Production Association with South American soybean meal.
The future of livestock and poultry production in Panama is very positive as most poultry farms are already using soybean meal diets, so it is important that USSEC continues to emphasize its technical assistance activities in Panama. There is plenty of room for growth in Panama’s swine production as only a handful of farms are using genetic lines in their current production techniques and will continue to need assistance.
USSEC recently provided technical assistance to pork producers and swine harvest processors in the Dominican Republic.
Consultants Julio Chaves, Pedro Pablo Lora and Fradbelin Escarraman visited ten companies where they discussed various relevant industry topics such as harvest, deboning, sausage facilities, meat quality and management to fulfill international export regulations. These consultants visited a large cooperative in the city of Moca where Mr. Chaves and Mr. Lora gave a lecture to the cooperative’s board members and associates about the need to produce good quality pigs and the many factors that may cause its detriment. The consultants also visited the National Agriculture and Livestock Fair in Santo Domingo to meet with livestock and pork producers.
The USSEC team visited the USDA office in the Dominican Republic and held a meeting with the Agricultural Attaché to relate the objectives of the trip, discussed some aspects of the meat and sausages industry in the Dominican, explained the next USSEC activities in the country and invited the Agriculture Office staff to participate in upcoming activities.
It is crucial for USSEC to continue its efforts on improving the quality of the pork produced in the Dominican Republic in order to increase the consumption of U.S. soybean meal. Imported pork is beginning to be introduced in the country, creating urgency for local pork to raise its standard of quality.
USSEC continues its positive outlook for soybean meal exports to Japan despite a persistently sluggish economy in that country. As the yen has weakened, prices on imports such as soybeans, wheat and canola have risen, which has in turn increased prices of goods such as flour and oil.
USSEC consultant Katsufumi Maekawa explains the Japanese economic stimulus popularly known as Abenomics (so named for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe):
“Abenomics is a fresh round of government spending and drastic monetary easing designed to end 15 years of inflation. It has already shown some success in the automotive and appliance export industries, but has not yet affected income, so food consumption has not changed, which means that imported meat, fish and vegetables are affected as well as soybean meal imports.”
He goes on to theorize that the Japanese holiday Golden Week, which typically takes place from late April to early May could help domestic meat and egg consumption as consumers celebrate with picnics or barbeques. “If domestic meat and egg consumption go up, that will be good news for market prices and good news for livestock producers.”
USSEC Korea hosted a roundtable on Argentine Differential Export Taxes (DETs) on April 22. The objective of the roundtable was to review the impact of Argentine DETs on the Korean soybean oil market, to seek possible options to correct market distortion caused by DETs, and to develop a consensus among the Korean crushing industry to get DETs addressed. USSEC invited North American Oilseed Processing Association (NOPA) to the roundtable to ask them to take an active role in building a global alliance in presenting this issue to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Several representatives from the Korean crushing industry also participated in the roundtable, including In Woo Lee, Chairman of KSPA and CEO of Sajo Haepyo Corp.; Jin Hyun Kim, Executive Vice President of CJ CheilJedang Corp.; along with staff from both companies. Paul Burke, USSEC North Asia Regional Director and representatives from the FAS post in Seoul, also participated.
KSPA’s In Woo Lee greeted attendees, and Jun Chul Choi from CJ Cheiljedang Corp. briefed participants on the influence of DETs on the current market situation of the local crushing industry. USSEC consultant John Baize and Tom Hammer, NOPA CEO, elaborated on the impact of Argentine DETs on the crushing industries of Korea and other countries. USSEC consultant Dr. Cheong suggested possible options for the Korean crushing industry to deal with DETs from the perspective of international trade rules and standards. After the roundtable, KSPA hosted a dinner to thank the efforts and cooperation of USSEC and NOPA. USSEC will closely watch the EU’s decision on Argentine biodiesel before taking further action.
USSEC Japan consultant Katsufumi Maekawa recently visited a key pork producer to provide technical support regarding pork production and costs. Mr. Maekawa discussed feed quality and nutrition at Komaksusa Farm in Hachimantai, Japan. The farm plans to double its operation and will send a representative to USSEC’s first feed training at the University of Illinois in August.
Mr. Maekawa also presented an in-house nutrition workshop at Ark Farm Inc. in Ichinoseki, Japan. This producer likewise aims to double its operation and asked Mr. Maekawa to discuss topics such as how to read feed labels and the importance of amino acids with its staff. A second workshop is planned for June.
A recent outbreak of the H7N9 virus, commonly referred to as “bird flu” or “avian influenza,” has affected poultry demand in Eastern China by 70-80% and has raised China’s food safety concerns. As tens of thousands of birds have been culled in an attempt to stop the spread of the virus or to avoid further loss because of sharp decline in poultry consumption, demand for soybean imports have fallen with fewer birds to feed.
USSEC Country Director Xiaoping Zhang explains the situation, “The source of the virus is still a mystery. As some victims were in close contact with live birds, which do not show symptoms of the disease, the government closed live bird markets. Some of the victims had never been in close contact with live birds and no one close to the victims was infected. The human disease situation, which is a very tiny percentage of the entire population, has been eased, but it will take some time for consumers to recover their confidence.”
He continues, “The Chinese government’s efforts in fighting the spread of the virus by closing the markets, culling birds and the naming of the disease as ‘Avian Influenza’ frightened consumers.” Mr. Zhang, however, does advise cautious optimism about the demand for soybeans: “Summer months are already the low season for meat consumption. I personally think that the demand for soybean meal will begin catching up starting in July and August in order to supply meat for the National Day holidays in October.”
China’s soybean imports have risen for eight consecutive years, rising to 58.39 million tons (MT) in 2012 from 10.43 MT in 2000, driven by rising wealth and demand for high-protein food such as pork, poultry and seafood. China now accounts for half of the world pork consumption and nearly 15 percent of the global poultry production. China’s soybean imports in 2012-2013 could still be in line with last year’s level because of strong growth in pork consumption, according to the China National Grain & Oil Information Center.
Japan Oilseed Processors Association (JOPA) has announced the retirement of Yoshinori Komura, Managing Director, effective May 23, 2013.
Mr. Komura has served as Managing Director of JOPA for the past 16 years and has made great efforts to strengthen and maintain an enduring relationship with the U.S. soy industry. He has been a leading voice of the Japanese soybean industry, and once criticized high FM levels of U.S. soybeans, while supporting genetically modified soybeans. Many grower leaders remember his warm and sincere attitude during U.S.-Japan Partnership Team visits in U.S. and Japan.
His successor will be Mr. Akira Saito, 60, formerly of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF). Mr. Saito retired from MAFF on March 31; his most recent position was general manager of the statistics department of the minister’s secretariat. He is currently a professor at Kyoto University and has expertise in the Japanese food industry.
USSEC recently marked the occasion of AG Processing (AGP)’s first bulk shipment of U.S. soybean meal sold cost and freight (CNF) to Vietnam. Sojitz Vietnam Company Limited received a shipment of 34,500 metric tons (MT) of U.S. soybean meal purchased from AG Processing at Cai-Mep Agri Port on April 25, 2013. USSEC and AGP representatives, together with several local customers and end-user consignees, were invited by Sojitz to observe the unloading of the vessel. Cai-Mep Agri Port is co-owned by Sojitz and the Interflour Group and operates under the joint venture Interflour Vietnam Limited (IFV).
Arguably the most sophisticated port terminal in Vietnam, Cai-Mep Agri Port is situated in Tan Thanh District of Ba Ria, Vung Tau Province, approximately 80km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. The facility is capable of receiving and unloading a fully laden 75,000 MT deadweight tonnage (DWT) Panamax vessel at the rate of 15,000 MT of soybean meal daily. The terminal has erected 160,000 MT of flat storage, the largest in Southeast Asia. Sojitz Vietnam has been an active participant in USSEC’s regional activities and their representatives have travelled to the U.S. on a number of USSEC-sponsored training and trade missions.
Vietnam has the most rapidly growing feed and livestock industry in Southeast Asia. Its imports of soybean meal from the U.S have exceeded 250,000 MT to date in 2013. USSEC services this market from its Hanoi office.
USSEC recently provided technical support to the Egyptian aquaculture industry. Dr. Michael Cremer, International Aquaculture Senior Program Advisor, and Timothy O’Keefe, Feed Milling Specialist, provided support in early April that included finalizing protocols and design for an aquaculture feeding demonstration, formulation of soy-optimized feeds for the aqua feeding demonstration, assistance to the aquafeed manufacturing sector in the design of new extrusion aquafeed mills, and implementation planning for two aquaculture projects funded by the Indiana Qualified State Soybean Board (QSSB).
Together with Salah Taher, USSEC’s local aquaculture coordinator in Egypt, the team met with Aller Aqua, a major supplier of fish feed, to formulate soy-optimized tilapia fingerling and growout feeds to be used in a model feeding demonstration. The feeding demonstration, which will be conducted at WorldFish in Abassa, Egypt, will address two of the most critical constraints currently impacting the Egypt aquaculture industry: poor quality tilapia genetic stock and poor quality tilapia feed. WorldFish, the USSEC cooperator in the feeding demonstration, began a program last year to release improved tilapia genetic stock to the Egypt tilapia industry. The USSEC-WorldFish cooperative feeding demonstration will compare the soy-optimized feed in extruded floating and pelleted sinking forms with genetically improved and non-improved tilapia to demonstrate the economic, productivity and sustainability advantages of extruded feed and improved strain tilapia.
The USSEC aqua team met with the director and staff of WorldFish at the Abassa aquaculture research facility to finalize protocols and scheduling for the feeding demonstration. The USSEC aqua team additionally met with Wadi Group and Cairo Poultry to provide technical information on aquafeed mill design and layout for two new extrusion aquafeed mills planned for construction by the two private sector groups. Lastly, plans were made to conduct fish nutrition and feed formulation seminars, a buyer/sellers workshop, and post-harvest market chain training under the Indiana QSSB funded Aquafeed Manufacturing Support and Market Chain Development Projects.
USSEC representatives, together with the North American Oilseed Processing Association (NOPA), met with officials from the Thai and Malaysian oilseed processing industry to discuss the negative impact of Argentine differential export taxes (DETs) on the Southeast Asian region’s crush industry. Virginia-based USSEC consultant John Baize, President of John C. Baize & Associates; Tom Hammer, President of NOPA; Dr. Neoh Soon Bin, Managing Director of Soon Soon Oil Mills (Malaysia); Khun Petch Wanglee, Assistant Managing Director of Thanakorn Vegetable Oils (Thailand); Khun Supachai Vitayatanagorn, Foreign Trade Manager of Thai Vegetable Oil (Thailand) and U.S. Foreign Agricultural Service staff (FAS) attended the meeting.
DETs are a system of export taxes in Argentina that essentially subsidize the Argentine oilseed processing industry by providing them with a differential advantage when the soybean meal they produce is exported. It is estimated that in 2011, the export tax increased Argentine crush margins by $11.90 per metric ton (MT), which allowed Argentina to have a significant price advantage in the export markets. Thailand imports over one million MT of soybean meal from Argentina annually (over 40% market share of imported meal). To compete, Thai crushers must discount the meal they produce locally from imported soybeans. Thai crushers estimate a loss of more than $71M in revenue in 2011 as a result of the unfair advantage DETs have provided the Argentine exporters. A similar situation exists in Malaysia.
The purpose of the meeting was to apprise the regional crush industry of the negative impact DETs have on their business and to elicit support for U.S. efforts in addressing this issue with the World Trade Organization. U.S. exports of soybeans used for crushing in the SE Asian region will exceed one million MT in 2013.
USSEC continues to promote soy in China’s aquafeed, as the country’s traditional aquafeed formula still contains many low quality vegetable protein meals other than soybean meal. USSEC aquafeed consultant Tim O’Keefe traveled to China from Feb. 19 – Mar. 07, 2013 and visited feed mills in four provinces to provide technical assistance, gather feed ingredient information at feed mill level, and to work with technical managers at these mills formulating the diets for freshwater fish, marine fish and shrimp, which will be used in USSEC’s 2013 feeding trials and demonstrations conducted with preferred customers in China.
All of the aquafeeds formulated by Mr. O’Keefe will be soy-based and will include as much as 65% soy product including soybean meal, soy hulls, soy oil and soy phytochemical concentrate (SPC). On average, the soy inclusion level recommended by USSEC is approximately 50% greater than that in China’s traditional aquafeed. As more aquafeed mills and aqua farmers adapt to soy-based diets, demand for soy products from China’s aquaculture industry is expected to be further elevated.
USSEC Aquaculture Program Manager Jim Zhang, Freshwater Technical Manager Zhou Enhua and Marine Aquaculture Technical Coordinator for Asia Sean Lan escorted Mr. O’Keefe on this trip to meet these cooperators and partners.
USSEC recently introduced Intensive Pond Aquaculture (IPA) Technology to the Chinese aquaculture industry. Although China’s aquaculture has recently grown at a rate averaging 5% annually, the industry continues to be challenged by increasing pond rental and feed ingredient costs which marginalize farmers’ profits. Thus, fish farmers are slow to adapt to more expensive soy-based aqua feed, despite its better quality as a feed ingredient. USSEC predicts that the use of IPA will increase pond yields to at least double or even triple their current averages of 750-1,000 kg/mu (six mu is equal to one acre), with an ultimate target yield of 3,500 kg/mu. This technology has the potential to tremendously increase China’s demand for soy products in aqua feed.
IPA, sponsored by the Iowa Soybean Association, requires only minimal modification to ponds, including the addition of a white water system and in-pond production cells. Furthermore, zero water discharge will increase yield with no negative impact on the environment. USSEC consultant Dr. Jesse Chappel, professor at Auburn University, traveled to China on March 23 – 29 to get the IPA project off the ground. Dr. Chappel visited the trial farm, Pingwang Fish Breeding Farm in the Jiangsu Province in eastern China, checking the status of pond reconstruction and culture cell construction. He also contacted local equipment manufacturers to source the equipment with the specifications needed for the project.
According to the project plan, all preparation will be completed by the end of April and production will begin in May. Dr. Chappell will return to China to provide further technical assistance in July.
USSEC Aquaculture Program Manager Jim Zhang and Freshwater Technical Manager Zhou Enhua escorted Dr. Chappel on this trip and helped to facilitate discussions and visits.