Resources

Description

The growth of aquaculture in SE Asia has proceeded rapidly and many water bodies are being overrun by aquaculture. USSEC personnel in the region have identified a critical need to aid governments in establishing aquaculture carrying capacities (ACC) for water bodies, i.e., how much aquaculture waste an environment can assimilate before negative impacts are seen. Several modeling methods exist to estimate ACC, from fairly simple (requiring few data) to extremely complex (requiring a lot of data). During Phase 1 of this project (2012), my task was to determine the needs and capabilities of some governments in the region (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) to conduct modeling for ACC. That led to an assessment that other governments (Malaysia, Myanmar) should be surveyed as well, and that a regional approach should be developed for solving the ACC problem, which was the task of Phase 2.

Language
English

Date Published
October 18, 2014

Author
David Bengtson
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They have a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects have systematically evaluated nutrient restrictions that limit the inclusion of soy products in the feed. To date, we have been very successful in increasing the level of soy protein (solvent extracted meal and soy protein concentrate) in practical feed formulations for this species.

Further research efforts have been supported and coordinated with a range of funding agencies to allow leveraging of research dollars. Previous studies have included the use of poultry byproduct meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fish meal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a clear response to taurine. The physiological characterization of deficiencies and the dietary requirement for taurine are currently underway. It is clear taurine is a limiting nutrient, even with supplements for lysine, methionine and taurine (as required), the removal of animal protein and/or fish meal results in depressed growth. This indicates that another nutrient is limiting in high soy diets when animal protein is reduced.

As part of this research we re-evaluated the amino acid profile of recent feed formulations to identify if there is a consistent amino acid or group of amino acids that are reduced. In the most recent diets glycine, valine and histidine were reduced as diets were shifted. These are not typically considered essential but all function as attractants. Consequently, evaluation of these or other possibly limiting amino acids is warranted.

Another way to improve production is through proper feed management. Without proper feed management economic returns from the feed may not be optimized. A preliminary study comparing one feeding to four feedings per day resulted in almost twice the final weight of the fish. This may be due to the feeding habits of pompano which grazes in the surf zone on small bivalves and other animals. Consequently the fish has evolved to have a relatively small stomach and quick digestive systems which may mean multiple feedings are required to obtain best performance. Hence, in order to help commercial producers improve growth rates and have efficient food conversion another component of this work was to evaluate increasing the number of feedings per day to determine if feed intake and growth are affected. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate if amino acids other than lysine, methionine and taurine are limiting in high soy diets with low levels of animal protein; and 2) determine the response of juvenile pompano to increasing numbers of feedings.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2014

Author
Dr Mark Booth
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Mark Drawbridge
Description

Milkfish industry is one of the most prevalent among the aquaculture activities in the Philippines. It is most likely the first choice of an aquaculturist who wants to venture in business. One of the major concerns in a a grow-out culture of any species is the use of the appropriate feeds to ensure the quality of harvest and a higher return on the investment.

This project aims to conduct a verification trial to compare three different diets prepared for milkfish namely (1) a soy optimized extruded floating using information developed during the USB/New Uses SEAFDEC project, (2) a USSEC soy optimized extruded floating feed from a commercial formulator using best available international information and (3) a commercial milkfish diet currently used in commercial culture in the Philippines to evaluate growth performance of milkfish in cages.

The results of the project will mainly influence the cage operators and will also benefit the LGUs and technicians of BFAR Regional offices.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Westly R. Rosario
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration with spotted rose snapper was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Martec Industries S. A. at the Martec experimental aquaculture site located at Paquera in front of Isla Cedro, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a diet in which a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) having high protein and low oligosaccharide content partially replaced fishmeal. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that inclusion of SPC NutrivanceTM at an inclusion rate up to 26.4% in the spotted rose snapper diet did not affect snapper production parameters, and that there was no difference in fish performance with the SPC diet and a commercial diet formulated with fishmeal as the primary protein source. Hence, the SPC-NutrivanceTM appears to be a potential ingredient for manufacturing aquafeeds for marine fish species.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2013

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and Amazon Fish Products S. A. in Ucayali, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the use of two new U.S. soybean products, Schillinger Genetics SG-3010 soybean meal and TechMix NutrivanceTM soy protein concentrate (SPC), to partially replace fishmeal in the diet for paiche Arapaima gigas. Both of these U.S. soy products have a high protein (>55%) and low oligosaccharide content with minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that SG-3010 soybean meal at an inclusion rate up to 41.9% and NutrivanceTM SPC at an inclusion rate up to 36.5% in the diet for paiche yielded fish production equivalent to that obtained with fishmeal-based commercial diets. Results indicate that both soy ingredients offer feed formulation options for the paiche industry in its effort to reduce dependence on fishmeal.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Max Risco, Luis Henostroza, Herbert E. Quintero
Description

A cooperative feeding demonstration was conducted in 2013 between USSEC and Titikaka Trout Co. in Lake Titicaca, Puno, Peru. The objective of the demonstration was to show the feasibility of using a U.S. manufactured soy protein concentrate (NutrivanceTM) to replace fishmeal in the diet for cage cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. NutrivanceTM is a feed grade soy protein concentrate (SPC) with high protein and low oligosaccharide content and minimal soy anti-nutritional factors. Rainbow trout performance was compared with a NutrivanceTM SPC diet and a fishmeal based diet. Results yielded similar trout performance with the two diets. The demonstration confirmed that SPC can partially replace fishmeal in the diet for rainbow trout, and that NutrivanceTM SPC is an acceptable ingredient for use in trout diets, thereby providing an alternative to fishmeal for the Peruvian trout farming industry.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Jairo Amezquita, Mark Newman, Jorge Valencia, Dr. Herbert E. Quintero
Description

A comparison feeding demonstration on grass carp density was jointly conducted in 2013 by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC), in cooperation with the Shanxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province. The feeding demonstration was conducted at the Yongji Municipal Fish Stock Farm, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the production performance of grass carp at two different stocking densities using the USSEC 80:20 pond production technology, 32/31extruded soybased feed and improved aeration system.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A pond feeding demonstration was jointly conducted by U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and the Shenyang Municipal Fishery Research Institute. The objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the production performance and economic value of the 32/61 soy-based feed for Songpu carp growout production with the USSEC zero water discharge technology to fish farmers in the northeastern region of China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

An in-pond raceway system to intensify pond aquaculture production demonstration was jointly conducted by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) program, in collaboration with the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries Extension Center and Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co., Ltd. to evaluate the technical and economic feasibilities of the in-pond raceway aquaculture (IPA) technology. The IPA technology was first developed in the United States as a means to increase fish production in the conventional pond units by culturing fish in confined raceway with aerated flowing water and removing fish metabolic wastes. Removal of the solid wastes significantly increases fish production by three times as compared to the conventional 80:20 pond culture technology. The technology was first transferred to China by USSEC through a cooperative project funded by the Iowa Soybean Association and tested at the Pingwang Fish Farm of the Wujiang Municipal Aquaculture Co. Ltd., Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Technology Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of improved strain carp from fry to fingerling stage using the USSEC 80:20 pond production model and zero water discharge technology and the USSEC formulated 36/7 SPC feed. The trial was conducted at the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center Demonstration Fish Farm near Harbin, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Michael C. Cremer
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2013

Author
Dr Mark Booth
Language
Spanish

Date Published
January 25, 2013

Author
United Soybean Export Council
Description

During phase I of this project, in 2009, we identified an optimal diet for the replacement of fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) and/or soybean meal (SBM) for summer flounder, based on a feeding trial in which six diets were tested. The diets included a FM control, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SBM, one diet based on a mixture of FM and SPC, and three diets based on a mixture of FM, SBM and SPC. Our work for phase 2 in 2010 was to compare the “best” diet (diet 6, all SPC replacement of FM, with no SBM) from that trial with a “standard” commercial diet in a six-month study using a quasi-commercial-scale rearing environment.

While that work was going on, we also had funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Aquaculture Initiative (NOAA-NMAI) to investigate different levels of FM replacement with SBM, and especially to examine if those levels affected the performance of the fish (summer flounder) in a bacterial challenge, which tests their resistance to disease. To our surprise, the fish survived best in the bacterial challenge after they had been fed the diet with the highest level of SBM (70% replacement of FM with SBM), even though their growth on that diet was significantly worse than that of fish grown on diets with lesser amounts of SBM. This unanticipated result suggested to us that something in SBM (but perhaps lacking in SPC) may serve as an immunostimulant to boost the immune system of fish.

Based on the results of the NOAA-NMAI work, we proposed to USB that we would examine the relationship between levels of FM, SBM and SPC during 2011. The graduate student involved in the project also had some separate funding for another experiment along these lines in early 2011. Our goal in these studies was to try to quantify the relationship between SBM and SPC levels in the diet and the survival of fish in a bacterial challenge. Fish were grown in our standard feeding trial prior to their use in the bacterial challenge, so we were also able to obtain data on survival, growth, and food conversion before they were challenged.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
David A. Bengtson, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chong M. Lee and Dan Ward
Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Dr. Relicardo M. Coloso
Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2012

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The farming of fish in containment systems (cages, tanks, ponds, etc.) is based on raising them at higher densities than are normally found in nature and feeding them on pellet diets. That is, both the fish and the added feed represent additions of organic materials to a natural system. One key to sustainable aquaculture development is to be sure that the added organic materials do not overwhelm the capacity of the environment to assimilate the waste (or other) products resulting from the aquaculture operation (sometimes referred to as :carrying capacity”). Unfortunately, in many areas of Southeast Asia, aquaculture has proceeded apace before an appropriate regulatory structure has been established, so that the environment has already been impacted to greater or lesser degree. Many models have been developed for aquaculture, including models to predict the impacts of aquaculture production on other components of the ecosystem. Whatever the modeling approach chosen for a particular situation, it is critical that regulatory managers understand what the model is doing, accept the model as both realistic and useful, and are not overwhelmed by the model (i.e., it is not overly complicated or datademanding).

The soy industry will benefit from deliberate, sustainable development of aquaculture potential in SE Asia, brought about by adequate consideration of environmental carrying capacity for aquaculture. A boom-and-bust scenario due to rapid aquaculture development that results in degraded environments unsuitable for aquaculture will ultimately wipe out the farmers and deprive soy farmers of a market for their products. Environmental modeling to determine carrying capacity for aquaculture production in common (shared) water bodies in SE Asia will be necessary to avoid boom-and-bust development and therefore develop stable markets for soy producers.

The purpose of this project is to determine the needs and capabilities of the SE Asian countries for modeling impacts of aquaculture production and use of common water bodies. With this knowledge, USB and ASA-IM can assist regulators and farmers in the development of a regional approach to sustainable aquaculture development.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They are great tasting fish with a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects evaluated the use of soy protein concentrate and selected supplements in marine fish feeds. Further research efforts supported by National Sea Grant Funds have evaluated the use of poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fishmeal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a conditional response to taurine. Given the identification of a taurine limitation, it would be beneficial to re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in practical diets for the Florida pompano and to identify if there are other nutrients that may be limiting.

The objectives of this study are: 1) re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in soy based feed formulations when taurine is supplemented to the diet; 2) conduct a growout trial with soy based and fishmeal based diets; and 3) use growth trial results to perform cost/benefit analyses comparing high soy diets to traditional feed formulation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson, D. Allen Davis and Jesse Chappell