Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2018

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A tilapia feeding demonstration was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) and the Hainan Fish Breeding Farm of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, Haikou City, Hainan Province. The objective of the demonstration was to demonstrate the optimal feed protein level for maximizing economic return for tilapia cultured in low volume, high density (LVHD) cages. The demonstration compared tilapia growth and production cost with feeds varying in protein level from 24% to 36%. Optimizing feed protein level is critical to maximizing economic return in tilapia operations, where the current economic environment and increasing competition have narrowed profit opportunities.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian, Michael C. Cremer and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A tilapia feeding demonstration was jointly conducted in 2010 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) and the Hainan Fish Breeding Farm of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, Haikou City, Hainan Province. The objective of the demonstration was to demonstrate the optimal feed protein level for maximizing economic return for tilapia cultured in low volume, high density (LVHD) cages. The demonstration compared tilapia growth and production cost with feeds varying in protein level from 24% to 36%. Optimizing feed protein level is critical to maximizing economic return in tilapia operations, where the current economic environment and increasing competition have narrowed profit opportunities.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2010

Author
Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian, Michael C. Cremer and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in 2008 by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in cooperation with the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing fishmeal with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the ASA-IM 36/7 1 fingerling feed for tilapia. The trial was conducted to demonstrate to fish farmers and feed millers in southern China that an all- plant protein fingerling feed would yield equivalent tilapia production and performance as a high fishmeal inclusion feed. The ability to use all-plant protein feeds at the fingerling stage provides feed millers with an option to formulate without fishmeal, which is limited in availability, as well as a means to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2008

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A cooperative feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and Nanning Baiyang Aquafeed Company to demonstrate feed-based production of monosex GIFT strain tilapia in LVHD cages with a soy-based feed. The trial was conducted at the Nanning Baiyang Fish Cage Demonstration Farm near Nanning, Guangxi Province.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A series of feeding trials was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Taixing Fish Stock Farm of Jiangsu Province, the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Hainan Fish Breeding Center of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, and the Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Lab of the Feed Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to evaluate a soy protein fingerling feed for key cultured freshwater fish species in China. The soy protein fingerling feed used soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a replacement for fishmeal in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed. Feeding trials comparing the standard ASA-IM 36/7 feed with fishmeal (36/7 FM) and the soy protein 36/7 feed with SPC (36/7 SPC) were conducted during the 2007 aquaculture production season at five locations in China with common carp, grass carp, tilapia and channel catfish. The objectives of replacing fishmeal with SPC in the fingerling feed were: 1) to provide feed millers with an option to fishmeal as a means to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal; and 2) to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center to compare production of tilapia in 1-m3 and 4-m3 cages using a soy-based feed and the ASA-IM Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage technology. The feeding trial was conducted in Ding Rong Reservoir near Wenchang, Hainan Province, China. The reservoir is under the jurisdiction of the Hainan Fish Breeding Center of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at the Phu Long Reservoir, Dalai, Ninh Binh, Yen Khanh District, Vietnam to demonstrate the growth potential of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured using soy-based feeds in 4-m3 LVHD cages. Tilapia fingerlings of 145 g were stocked into three 4-m3 cages at 1,200 fish per cage. Fish in all three cages were fed a soybean meal based, extruded feed that was produced domestically in Vietnam. After 72 days of culture the tilapia reached an average size of 495 g with an average FCR of 2.17:1. Gross production averaged 145.75 kg/m3 of cage volume.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at ZH Aquafarm, San Jose City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines to evaluate the growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using ASA-IM feed-based pond culture methodologies with soy-based feeds in comparison to traditionally used culture methodologies and feeds. Mono-sex tilapia of size 0.0013 g were stocked in three, 0.1 ha ponds at 25,200 fish per hectare for the ASA-IM feed based demonstration ponds. Mono-sex tilapia of size 0.0007 g were stocked in three, 0.0.1 ha ponds at 52,500 fish per hectare for the traditional methodology of culture used in the area. Tilapia grew from an average of 0.0013 g to 252 g in 102 days and yielded an average of 6,048 kg/ha in the ASA-IM feed-based demonstration ponds. Tilapia in the traditional technology ponds grew from an average of 0.0007 g to 252 g in 132 days and yielded an average of 10,483 kg/ha. Survivals in the ASA-IM ponds averaged 95% while in the traditional ponds the average survivals were 79%. An economic analysis of the project indicated an average 29% overall return on investment (ROI) from the three ASA-IM feed based demonstrationponds, while only an average 16% ROI for the traditional ponds.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding trial was conducted to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of hybrid tilapia in ponds in the Guangzhou, China region using a soy-maximized, all-plant protein feed. Fish were stocked in three, 4.7-mu (0.31-ha) ponds at a density of 800 hybrid tilapia and 100 silver carp per mu (12,000 tilapia and 1,500 silver carp per ha). Hybrid tilapia grew from 79 g to an average weight of 497 g per fish in 124 days of feeding. Gross production of harvestable size fish averaged 390 kg/mu (5,851 kg/ha) for hybrid tilapia and 32 kg/mu (476 kg/ha) for silver carp. Average estimated FCR with hybrid tilapia was 1.63:1. Low fish production and poor FCR were the result of significant tilapia reproduction in the three trial ponds, indicating poor quality hybrid stock. The trial was terminated early, before the tilapia could reach the 600-g target market size because of the tilapia reproduction problem.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted to demonstrate advanced fingerling to market growth performance of red tilapia in the Beijing, China region using a soy-maximized, all-plant protein feed. Fish were stocked in three, 2-mu (0.13-ha) ponds at a density of 1,000 red tilapia and 50 silver carp per mu (15,000 tilapia and 750 silver per ha). Red tilapia grew from approximately 150 g to an average weight of 495 g per fish in 75 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 484 kg/mu (7,260 kg/ha) for red tilapia and 52 kg/mu (788kg/ha) for silver carp. Average survival rates for red tilapia and silver carp were 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively. The soy-maximized feed, formulated to have 32% crude protein and 6% crude fat with soybean meal as the primary protein source, yielded an average estimated FCR with red tilapia of 1.51:1. Average net economic return was RMB 1,239 per mu ($2,249/ha). Average return on investment was 33%.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A two-stage feeding trial was conducted near Haikou, Hainan Province, to evaluate fry to market growth performance of red tilapia using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based feeds. In the first stage, juvenile fish were stocked in one 2.0-mu (0.13-ha) and two 2.5-mu (0.17-ha) ponds at a density of 4,000 red tilapia and 1,000 silver carp per mu (60,000 tilapia and 15,000 silver carp per hectare). Red tilapia grew from 1.0 g to an average weight of 51.3 g per fish in 62 days of feeding, with an average FCR of 0.97:1. At fish size 50 g, the fish were restocked at 800 red tilapia and 200 silver carp per mu (12,000 tilapia and 3,000 silver carp per hectare). Red tilapia grew from 50g to an average weight of 573 g in 110 days, with an average FCR of 1.16:1. Total production time from fry (1-g) to market size (573 g) was 172 days. Red tilapia demonstrated excellent growth performance and feed conversion efficiency with the ASA soymeal-based feeds and 80:20 production technology throughout the production cycle, and yielded market size fish from fry within the constraints of a single production season.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2004

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with de-hulled soybean meal in diets for pre-marketing size hybrid tilapia reared in a water re-circulating system. Hybrid tilapia with 155 g initial mean body weight were randomly assigned to 16 net pens that were placed in four quarters of a water re-circulating system. Four isonitrogenic and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0-20% fish meal (or 57-29% dehulled soybean meal) and fed to hybrid tilapia for 8 weeks. A randomized complete block design was used in the experiment. After 8 weeks feeding period, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in percent weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) among fish fed different experimental diets. Muscle composition was not (P>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments either. Feed utilization of large size fish in this trial, however, is somewhat better than the juvenile fish fed similar diets and reared in aquaria in a previous study. Large size hybrid tilapia may utilize de-hulled soybean meal better than juvenile fish.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2004

Author
Chen-Huei Huang, Ph.D.
Description

The objective of this feeding trial is to demonstrate the growth and economic performance of mixed sex and monosex Nile tilapia from fingerling to market stages using the ASA-IM feed-based pond production model and a soymeal-based, all-plant protein feed. And also to replace locally produced fish meal by imported soybean meal in diets for Nile tilapia in pre-fertilized ponds. The triall was conducted under two different farming conditions in two geographical locations in Egypt.

1) The first location was at the heart of the largest tilapia producing area in Egypt called Kafr El-Sheikh which alone produces about 50% of the total aquaculture Tilapia production (around 120,000 metric tones). The trial was implemented on a farm owned and managed by the most prominent and innovative fish farmer in Egypt, Dr. Ismail Radwan who is also the chairman of Kafr El-Sheikh Fish Farmers Association and is a graduate of Auburn University, USA

•In this farm monosex all-male Nile tilapia fingerlings Averaging 25 g initial body weight were stocked into nine earthen ponds (0.15 ha each) at the rate of 40,000 fish per hectare (4 fish/m2) on April 1st 2006. Water depth for all ponds was around 1.5 m. The nine demonstration ponds were treated identically in all aspects to minimize variability and provide the farmer with an accurate assessment of average farm production that can be anticipated with the demonstrated technology and feed.

•Three different diets were used in this trial as follows:
a) 25% C.P. Commercial diet with fish meal as one of its ingredients.
b) 25% C.P. diet with all-plant protein source (soybean)
c) 32% C.P. diet with all-plant protein source (soybean)
Feeds were prepared in an extruded, floating pellet form.

•Each of the three diets was randomly assigned to a group of three ponds. On June 6, 2006, experimental feeding started. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily using the ASA-IM 90% satiation feeding technique (ref. section II.4). It is important to mention that average fish body weight was 58 grams at the time of starting the experimental feeding.

•Sampling of the fish population in each demonstration pond was carried out monthly on approximately the same date each month to monitor fish growth and adjust amounts of feed to be fed. All sample data were recorded in the feeding trial record book.

•The following figure illustrates the average body weight of Nile tilapia obtained during the different samples conducted during the culture period prior to final harvest.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2004

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted at Tampa Bay Tilapia Farm, Santa Rita, Pampanga, Philippines to demonstrate the growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using ASA feed-based culture methodologies and soy-based feeds. Mono-sexed tilapia of size 0.5 g were stocked in three, 0.63-ha ponds at 31,656 fish per hectare. Tilapia grew from an average of 0.5 g to 251 g in 98 days and yielded an average of 6,531 kg/ha. An economic analysis of the project indicated a 49.5% overall return on investment (ROI) for the farmer from the three combined ponds.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in a reservoir near Haikou, Hainan Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of red tilapia using the ASALVHD cage production model and ASA soymeal-based feed. Tilapia stocked in three, 1-m3 cages at a density of 400 fish per m3 grew from 78 g to 650 g in 101 days on a 32% crude protein, soybean meal-based, all-plant protein diet. Average FCR for the 101-day feeding period was 1.33:1. Gross production of tilapia averaged 256 kg/m3 in the three trial cages, with 99% fish survival. Tilapia harvested from the three trial cages had good size uniformity and body conformation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Growth performance of red tilapia was demonstrated from fingerling to market stages in an ASA LVHD coastal cage trial using an all-plant protein, soy-based growout feed. Red tilapia in three replicate cages of size 6.4-m3 were fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA 32/6 soybean meal-based feed in extruded, floating pellet form. Average monthly salinity in the Longmen area was 7.5 ppt, within a range of 0 ppt to 19 ppt. Tilapia grew from 64 g to 493 in 124 days, with an average FCR of 1.41:1. Fish survival averaged 91.7%. Fish production averaged 724 kg per cage (113 kg/m3). Net economic return averaged RMB 1,080 per m3, at an average market price of RMB 16/kg for red tilapia cultured in brackish water. Return to investment averaged 48.3% for the three trial cages. The trial demonstrated the feasibility of culturing red tilapia in cages in a coastal area with fluctuating salinity and overall brackishwater conditions.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan