Resources

Description

Salmonids (primarily Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout) are the most cultured family of carnivorous fishes in the world, with 2004 production values of approximately two million metric tonnes (mmt) valued at US $6.5 billion (FAO 2006). The salmonid industry accounts for approximately 3% of total global aquacultural production, but its value is nearly 10% of total global aquacultural value (FAO 2006). Over the past ten years, the industry has more than doubled production output. Norway and Chile are the two primary producing countries, accounting for approximately 60% of global salmonid production (FAO 2006).

Commercial feed formulations for salmonids currently incorporate 30 to 45% fish meal (New and Wijkstroem 2002). Global fish meal production typically ranges between 6-7 mmt annually (FAO 2006). The salmonid industry is utilizing about one third of the total amount of fish meal used in aquaculture feeds (Hardy 2002). However, recent declines in the harvest of fishes utilized to produce fish meal (primarily in Peru) lead to an historic high of $1,600 per metric tonne of fish meal in the summer of 2006 (Hardy 2006). As fish meal prices climb, production costs for salmonid farmers increase as well (New and Wijkstroem 2002). Additionally, as fish farmers increase production, the economic return per unit of production decreases. For Atlantic salmon, the return per unit has decreased by 20-40% since 1986-1987 (FAO 2006). If the salmonid industry is going to continue to grow, alternative proteins will need to be incorporated into their feed formulations.

As the salmonid industry incorporates changes to their feed formulations, they need to assure that these changes have a minimal impact on fillet quality. Salmonid fillets are an excellent source of high quality protein. In addition, they contain high amounts of the n- 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Farmed salmonids contain slightly higher levels of EPA and DHA than wild harvested salmonids, with farmed rainbow trout containing 1.15 g EPA and DHA per 100 g serving, compared to 0.99 g EPA and DHA per 100 g serving of wild caught rainbow trout. Farmed Atlantic salmon contain 2.15 g EPA and DHA per 100 g serving, compared to 1.80 g EPA and DHA per 100 g serving of wild caught Atlantic salmon (all values are cooked edible portion) (USDA/ARS 2006). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and American Heart Association (AHA) recommend two meals (one meal is 170.1-226.8 g) of fish per week, especially fatty species such as salmonids, to maintain a healthy lifestyle. In 2004, the FDA allowed a qualified health claim for reduced risk of coronary heart disease on conventional foods that contain EPA and DHA (FDA 2004). As the salmonid feed industry transitions to alternative protein and lipid sources, EPA and DHA levels in the diet and fillet will need to be considered.

Soybean meal (SBM) is an alternative protein ingredient currently of great interest to the aquaculture industry. In 2005, global production of soybean seeds was estimated at 218 mmt, but more importantly, global production of SBM was estimated to be 145 mmt, more than 20 times greater than the average global production of fish meal (USDA 2006). SBM prices can vary, but typically cost around US $200 per metric tonne (www.aquafeed.com). Dehulled SBM contains approximately 48% crude protein, one of the highest protein contents of all plant-based protein ingredients (NRC 1993). When used as a primary protein source, the essential amino acid profile of SBM, with the exception of methionine, is adequate to meet the known requirements of salmonids (NRC 1993).

Despite the global availability and nutritional characteristics of SBM, it has not been incorporated into salmonid diets at high inclusion rates. SBM is typically incorporated at 10-30% of the diet depending on species and feed manufacturer (Hardy 2002; Pillay and Kutty 2005). The relatively high concentration of carbohydrates and presence of antinutritional factors (ANF) are believed to be the primary factors limiting the amount of SBM used in salmonid feeds (Francis et al. 2001; Hardy 2002). Lectins, oligosaccharides, saponins and trypsin inhibitors are all present in SBM and have the ability to act as ANF when fed to fish. Soy isoflavones (also called phytoestrogens) may also exert negative effects when fed to fish by exerting estrogenic effects; however, isoflavones may also have a beneficial effect by acting as an antioxidant. Researchers have attempted to identify the specific components of SBM that are limiting its use in salmonid diets; however, most of this research evaluated SBM that had been subjected to various extraction techniques that removed several potential ANF instead of evaluating purified ANF derived from SBM (Francis et al. 2001). Consequently, the specific antinutritive compounds present in SBM that are exerting negative effects on salmonids have not been identified

In 2002, the United Soybean Board (USB) and the Indiana, Illinois and Ohio State Boards funded the Soy-in-Aquaculture (SIA) Managed Aquaculture Program. SIA was established to overcome the barriers limiting the amount of soy ingredients in aquaculture feeds. The initial SIA initiative contained two separate but related programs. The goal of the first component focused on increasing the amount of soy inclusion in feeds used by well-established, intensive aquaculture industries that were underutilizing soy in their feed formulations. Specific objectives were to systematically evaluate specific ANF and determine which ones were causing problems when fed to salmonids. This research was conducted at seven institutions, led by Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN, USA). The second program was international marketing led by the American Soybean Association/United States Soybean Export Council. The primary objective of that program was to increase usage of soy-based formulations by fish farmers in Southeast Asia and India. The remainder of this document will focus on the research portion of the SIA initiative.

Language
English

Author
Steven D. Hart (Purdue University), Frederic T. Barrows (Agricultural Research Service, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station), Konrad Dabrowski (Ohio State University), Siddhartha Dasgupta (Kentucky State University), Donald L. Garling (Michigan State
Description

The United Soybean Board’s Soy-in-Aquaculture(SM) Managed Research Program (SIA) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), announce a collaborative effort to establish a new soybean meal (SBM) nutrient database designed to help feed formulators use SBM in diets fed to aquatic animals. This collaborative effort marks the first full nutrient and anti-nutritional factor (ANF) characterization of SBM in aquatic animal diets. This characterization is important considering the fact that ANF levels in SBM vary significantly depending on various factors such as cultivar.

Language
English

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Shrimp aquaculture presently produces approximately one million metric tons of shrimp annually. While some 20 species are cultured in various parts of the world, the majority of production is based on eight species (Table1). For the eastern hemisphere, the fast growing giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is the most important, while in the western hemisphere, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the leading production species.

Shrimp have a complicated life cycle (Figure 1). Eggs from the female are broadcast into the marine environment. Hatching from the egg, the larvae pass through three distinct stages, nauplius, zoea and mysis, before assuming the distinctive adult morphology as post-larval or juvenile shrimp. The distinction between post-larva and juvenile is slight. Generally, the term post-larva is used for the first
month and juvenile thereafter.

Depending on one’s focus, shrimp aquaculture either started as trapping and holding of wild seed (Ling et al., 1977), or with the development of modern production techniques arising out of the research of the Japanese scientist Motosaku Fujinaga (Fast,1992). The “trap and hold” approach requires little effort on the part of the farmer, but yields are low and unpredictable. Traditionally with this type of
approach, the shrimp feed and grow on available pond organisms. In some cases where additional seed is sourced from the wild, supplementary feed may be added to the pond. Availability of seed is often the limiting factor for shrimp farmers using the “trap and hold” approach.

This bottleneck was partially bypassed by Fujinaga’s development of methods allowing captive reproduction of shrimp, starting with gravid females obtained from the wild, and completion of the larval cycle in hatcheries.

Language
English

Author
Douglas E. Conklin
Description

Atlantic salmon, Pacific salmon and rainbow trout, collectively known as salmonids, are the most farmed carnivorous fish species in the world, mainly because they are prized food fish and relatively easy to culture. Salmon and trout can survive in a variety of environmental conditions, such as water temperatures from 0oC to as high as 28oC for some trout strains. They spawn successfully in water temperatures from 2oC to 15oC, and grow at temperatures from 6oC to 25oC. Depending upon their diet, salmon and trout can have pigmented (red) or non-pigmented (white) flesh. Salmon and trout are sometimes thought of as freshwater fish and other times as marine fish, but they are very adaptable to a variety of saline conditions.

Language
English

Author
Ronald W. Hardy
Description

The United Soybean Board’s Soy-in-Aquaculture(SM) Managed Research Program (SIA) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), announce a collaborative effort to establish a new soybean meal (SBM) nutrient database designed to help feed formulators use SBM in diets fed to aquatic animals. This collaborative effort marks the first full nutrient and anti-nutritional factor (ANF) characterization of SBM in aquatic animal diets. This characterization is important considering the fact that ANF levels in SBM vary significantly depending on various factors such as cultivar.

Language
English

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The results from the trials performed during 2007 for seabass indicated that the species is more sensitive to fishmeal/fishoil replacement than Gilthead seabream. In the treatments where FM was providing 35% of the protein, daily growth rate and food conversion were negatively affected compared to a control diet containing 65% FM protein. It was concluded that 40% FM protein was the main focus for the formulations of the 2008 program.

Language
English

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Description

Designing diets that are primarily soybean meal (SBM) instead of fishmeal will improve the overall sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A diet must provide good growth to the animal to which it is fed, but it should also neutrally or positively impact the ability of the animal to survive disease outbreak. Thus, a soybean-based diet for summer flounder that optimizes both growth and survival during bacterial challenge, would lead to enhanced profitability and sustainability of summer flounder aquaculture. It is well known that excess SBM in diets for fish can lead to intestinal pathologies like enteritis. However, in our previous work, we have demonstrated that SBM actually appears to stimulate the immune system of summer flounder, whereas soy protein concentrate (SPC) does not do so. Thus, it appears that something that is extracted from SBM to produce SPC (the fraction that is commonly referred to as soy molasses) contains one or more compounds that stimulate the immune system in these fish. We have funding from Rhode Island Sea Grant to identify the fractions of soy molasses that stimulate immune function, but it does not include sufficient funding to examine histopathology of the liver and pancreas or the blood chemistry for certain enzymes. USB funding is enabling us to do that work as part of the Sea Grant project. Although this work is directed toward the summer flounder industry, identification of soy molasses components that stimulate fish immune systems could be broadly applicable to other fish species in aquaculture as well. The concept is to use SPC as the main soy component of fish diets as the protein source, but then to add just the right amount of the appropriate soy molasses factor to boost the immune system as well.

Language
English

Author
niversity of Rhode Island - Bengtson
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2016

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2016

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

The overall objective of this project is to build demand for U.S. soy in aquaculture markets by developing soy based feeds for White seabass (WSB; Atractoscion nobilis) and California yellowtail (YT; Seriola lalandi) and striped Bass (SB; Morone saxatilis).

Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Description

Research is needed to advance the fish feeds sector in the United States and the world by increasing the cost-effectiveness and environmental sustainability of the aquafeeds used during the growout stages. This project addresses the need to develop practical diets for Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), using combinations of various soy protein products at different ages in order to formulate cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets.

The proposed goal is to maximize fish meal replacement for Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, at different ages in order to optimize the soy-based products in aquaculture feeds. The use of protein sources such as standard soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and soy by selective breeding program could greatly improve the profitability and appeal of the industry. In essence, the main objective was to conduct scientific experiments with practical application aimed at improving the ecological and economic efficiency of feeds for the Florida pompano and eventually for other commercially important species as well. The present proposal represented the second research phase of a study financed by United Soybean Board (USB) in 2012.

Florida pompano is a truly euryhaline species of high market value and demand. With the recent interest in developing aquaculture of high-value carnivorous species, production costs are a primary concern since carnivorous fish require greater amounts of protein and fishmeal represents the primary protein source in feeds formulations. Lack of adequate feeds for the growout of pompano remains a serious bottleneck preventing pompano aquaculture expansion to commercial scale. No basic or applied research has been conducted to develop ecologically and economically efficient diets for larger size pompano, at the later stages of the growout period, when the vast majority of the feeds are used. We proposed to conduct innovative scientific research to address and resolve this problem.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Dr. Daniel Benetti & Dr. Jorge Suarez
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They have a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects have systematically evaluated nutrient restrictions that limit the inclusion of soy products in the feed. To date, we have been very successful in increasing the level of soy protein (solvent extracted meal and soy protein concentrate) in practical feed formulations for this species.

Further research efforts have been supported and coordinated with a range of funding agencies to allow leveraging of research dollars. Previous studies have included the use of poultry byproduct meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fish meal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a clear response to taurine. The physiological characterization of deficiencies and the dietary requirement for taurine are currently underway. It is clear taurine is a limiting nutrient, even with supplements for lysine, methionine and taurine (as required), the removal of animal protein and/or fish meal results in depressed growth. This indicates that another nutrient is limiting in high soy diets when animal protein is reduced.

As part of this research we re-evaluated the amino acid profile of recent feed formulations to identify if there is a consistent amino acid or group of amino acids that are reduced. In the most recent diets glycine, valine and histidine were reduced as diets were shifted. These are not typically considered essential but all function as attractants. Consequently, evaluation of these or other possibly limiting amino acids is warranted.

Another way to improve production is through proper feed management. Without proper feed management economic returns from the feed may not be optimized. A preliminary study comparing one feeding to four feedings per day resulted in almost twice the final weight of the fish. This may be due to the feeding habits of pompano which grazes in the surf zone on small bivalves and other animals. Consequently the fish has evolved to have a relatively small stomach and quick digestive systems which may mean multiple feedings are required to obtain best performance. Hence, in order to help commercial producers improve growth rates and have efficient food conversion another component of this work was to evaluate increasing the number of feedings per day to determine if feed intake and growth are affected. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate if amino acids other than lysine, methionine and taurine are limiting in high soy diets with low levels of animal protein; and 2) determine the response of juvenile pompano to increasing numbers of feedings.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2014

Author
Dr Mark Booth