Resources

Description

As marine ingredient levels are reduced in aquafeed, supplementation with low levels of taurine may be required to optimize production. Taurine may not only improve growth and performance, but also is required to reduce nutritional diseases such as green liver disease and low hematocrit levels in some fish. Taurine is authorized for fish feed in all species in the European Union and China, but not the United States.

Language
English

Author
M. Rhodes, W. Rossi, Jr., T. Hanson, Ph.D., D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Language
English

Date Published
October 24, 2015

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Language
English

Date Published
February 28, 2015

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Description

Research is needed to advance the fish feeds sector in the United States and the world by increasing the cost-effectiveness and environmental sustainability of the aquafeeds used during the growout stages. This project addresses the need to develop practical diets for Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), using combinations of various soy protein products at different ages in order to formulate cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets.

The proposed goal is to maximize fish meal replacement for Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, at different ages in order to optimize the soy-based products in aquaculture feeds. The use of protein sources such as standard soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and soy by selective breeding program could greatly improve the profitability and appeal of the industry. In essence, the main objective was to conduct scientific experiments with practical application aimed at improving the ecological and economic efficiency of feeds for the Florida pompano and eventually for other commercially important species as well. The present proposal represented the second research phase of a study financed by United Soybean Board (USB) in 2012.

Florida pompano is a truly euryhaline species of high market value and demand. With the recent interest in developing aquaculture of high-value carnivorous species, production costs are a primary concern since carnivorous fish require greater amounts of protein and fishmeal represents the primary protein source in feeds formulations. Lack of adequate feeds for the growout of pompano remains a serious bottleneck preventing pompano aquaculture expansion to commercial scale. No basic or applied research has been conducted to develop ecologically and economically efficient diets for larger size pompano, at the later stages of the growout period, when the vast majority of the feeds are used. We proposed to conduct innovative scientific research to address and resolve this problem.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Dr. Daniel Benetti & Dr. Jorge Suarez
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They have a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects have systematically evaluated nutrient restrictions that limit the inclusion of soy products in the feed. To date, we have been very successful in increasing the level of soy protein (solvent extracted meal and soy protein concentrate) in practical feed formulations for this species.

Further research efforts have been supported and coordinated with a range of funding agencies to allow leveraging of research dollars. Previous studies have included the use of poultry byproduct meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fish meal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a clear response to taurine. The physiological characterization of deficiencies and the dietary requirement for taurine are currently underway. It is clear taurine is a limiting nutrient, even with supplements for lysine, methionine and taurine (as required), the removal of animal protein and/or fish meal results in depressed growth. This indicates that another nutrient is limiting in high soy diets when animal protein is reduced.

As part of this research we re-evaluated the amino acid profile of recent feed formulations to identify if there is a consistent amino acid or group of amino acids that are reduced. In the most recent diets glycine, valine and histidine were reduced as diets were shifted. These are not typically considered essential but all function as attractants. Consequently, evaluation of these or other possibly limiting amino acids is warranted.

Another way to improve production is through proper feed management. Without proper feed management economic returns from the feed may not be optimized. A preliminary study comparing one feeding to four feedings per day resulted in almost twice the final weight of the fish. This may be due to the feeding habits of pompano which grazes in the surf zone on small bivalves and other animals. Consequently the fish has evolved to have a relatively small stomach and quick digestive systems which may mean multiple feedings are required to obtain best performance. Hence, in order to help commercial producers improve growth rates and have efficient food conversion another component of this work was to evaluate increasing the number of feedings per day to determine if feed intake and growth are affected. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate if amino acids other than lysine, methionine and taurine are limiting in high soy diets with low levels of animal protein; and 2) determine the response of juvenile pompano to increasing numbers of feedings.

Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson and Allen Davis
Description

The Florida pompano is one of several species of jacks that are considered highly prized food fish. They are great tasting fish with a flakey texture and a mild flavor. Currently, they are reared in intensive indoor systems and outdoor cages in many areas of the world. Based on ongoing research this species performs well on soy based diets as long as nutritional and palatability needs are met. Previous USB funded projects evaluated the use of soy protein concentrate and selected supplements in marine fish feeds. Further research efforts supported by National Sea Grant Funds have evaluated the use of poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meals as alternatives to fishmeal in soy based diets. This research confirmed methionine and lysine were not deficient in high soy diets (~50% diet) but there was a conditional response to taurine. Given the identification of a taurine limitation, it would be beneficial to re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in practical diets for the Florida pompano and to identify if there are other nutrients that may be limiting.

The objectives of this study are: 1) re-evaluate the use of soy protein concentrate in soy based feed formulations when taurine is supplemented to the diet; 2) conduct a growout trial with soy based and fishmeal based diets; and 3) use growth trial results to perform cost/benefit analyses comparing high soy diets to traditional feed formulation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2012

Author
Drs. Terry Hanson, D. Allen Davis and Jesse Chappell
Description

Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) is a carnivorous marine finfish with commercial aquaculture potential. While the price of fishmeal has never been higher, soy has long been considered a cost-effective potential replacement candidate for aquacultured fish. However, there are many products on the domestic and international market with varying nutritional profiles that may or may not be well-utilized by carnivorous fish. Examples include a variety of refined soy protein concentrates (SPCs) and more cost-effective fermented soy proteins, several of which could hold promise for the aquaculture industry. Through a methodical experimental approach at the University of Miami Experimental Hatchery (UMEH), three soy protein products were evaluated for potential incorporation into feeds for Florida pompano.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Selecting a new fish species with a potential value for aquaculture has essential importance for the future development of the aquaculture industry. In the United States, Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, is among the marine fish species with aquaculture potential that has caught the interest of the industry for being a truly euryhaline species. Research is needed to complete our knowledge of the nutritional requirements of Florida pompano at different ages in order to develop cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets. With the recent interest in high market-value carnivorous species, cost concerns are extremely important since carnivorous fish require greater amounts of protein and fishmeal represents the primary protein source in feeds formulations. A review of the literature confirms the importance of completing the nutritional requirements for Florida Pompano at different ages in the development of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly diets. Our goal was to examine the nutritional requirements in terms of protein and energy for Florida Pompano close to its typical marketable weight, which is between 400 and 600 g. To date, only the nutritional requirements for juvenile fish weighing up to 45 g have been examined. Since nutritional requirements have been well described to change as a fish grows and develops, it is essential that the requirements for larger Pompano, which consume greater quantities of foods than their smaller counterparts, be elucidated. This is most important for protein and lipid levels as they are the most expensive dietary components.

Language
English

Date Published
October 16, 2011

Author
Matthew C.J. Taynor a, Jorge A. Suareza, Carlos Tudelaa, Gerard Cuzonb, Ronald Hoeniga and Daniel D. Benettia
Description

An offshore ocean cage feeding trial was conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program in southern Hainan Province, China, in 2007 to compare pompano performance with feeds having standard and low fishmeal inclusion rates. The trial compared pompano growth and feed conversion efficiency with the standard ASA-IM 43/12 pompano growout diet, in which 45% of the protein was supplied by fishmeal, and a nutritionally equivalent diet in which dehulled soybean meal and soy protein concentrate were the major protein contributors, and in which fishmeal supplied only 16% of the protein. Pompano were cultured in 100-m3 OCAT submersible offshore ocean cages at an average density of approximately 9,600 fish per cage. There was no difference in pompano performance with the two feeds. Pompano in two OCAT cages fed the ASA-IM 43/12 standard feed grew from approximately 19 g to 608g in 146 days with >99% survival. Pompano in two OCAT cages fed the 43/12 soy feed grew from approximately 26 g to 610g in 146 days with >99% survival. Average feed conversion rates for the 43/12 standard and 43/12 soy feeds were 2.51:1 and 2.59:1, respectively. High pompano survival was attributed to new fish health management protocols and pathogen treatment regimes adopted in the 2007 trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Hsiang Pin Lan1, Michael C. Cremer2, Jesse Chappell3, John Hawke4, Tim O’Keefe5
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in Vung Tau Province in southern Vietnam to demonstrate the growth of pompano (Trachinotus blochii) using the ASA-IM culture methodology in 8-m3 cages. Pompano fingerings of size 28 g were stocked into three 8-m3 cages at 570 fish per cage and cultured according to the ASA-IM low volume, high density (LVHD) cage methodology. Fish in the three cages were fed a soybean meal optimized, extruded 43% protein, 12% fat (43/12) feed that was produced in China. After 67 days of culture, fish grown using the ASA-IM LVHD methodology and fed the soy-optimized feed grew to an average of 201 g, with an average gross production of 113 kg/cage (14 kg/m3), an average FCR of 1.84 and an average survival of 99%.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Lukas Manomaitis and Michael C. Cremer
Description

Goldenfin pompano growth performance in coastal cages was evaluated from juvenile to market size at two stocking densities using the ASA LVHD cage production model and ASA extruded, marine fish feeds. The cage trial was conducted in Xincun Bay at Ling Shui, Hainan, China. Pompano were stocked in 8.0-m3 cages at densities of 250 fish per m3 (2,000 fish per cage) and 375 fish per m3 (3,000 fish per cage), with three replicates of each stocking density. Juvenile pompano were fed to satiation daily with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat feed (47/15) to fish size 25 g, and with a 43% crude protein and 12% crude fat feed (43/12) from fish size >25 g. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. Pompano stocked at 250/m3 grew from 5 g to 389 g in 157 days of feeding, while pompano stocked at 375/m3 grew from 5 g to 385 g in the same period. Fish growth at the two densities was not significantly different (P>0.05). Gross production per m3 of cage volume at harvest was 88.3 kg at the 250/m3 stocking density and 117.3 kg at the 375/m3 stocking density. Gross production at harvest was significantly different (P<0.05) for the two stocking densities. Average FCR with the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was 2.11:1 for fish at the 250/m3 and 2.26:1 for fish at the 375/m3 stocking density. Average fish survival was 90.8% at the 250/m3 density and 81.2% at the 375/m3 density. Fish survival and FCR were both significantly different (P<0.05) for the two stocking densities. Net economic return and return on investment (ROI) were RMB 2,806/cage (RMB 351/m3) and 24.8%, respectively, for fish stocked at 250/m3, and RMB 3,161/cage (RMB 395/m3) and 20.3%, respectively, for fish stocked at 375/m3. Neither net economic return nor ROI were significantly different (P>0.05) at the prevailing market price of RMB 20/kg for goldenfin pompano. Feed cost per kg of fish growth with the ASA feeds was RMB 10.13 for fish stocked at 250/m3 and RMB 10.85 for fish stocked at 350/m3. Results of the trial indicate that goldenfin pompano can be cultured at high density in LVHD ocean cages, but that FCR and fish survival are negatively impacted at the higher density. Fish growth performance was good at both densities and did not decline, even when carrying capacity in the high density cages reached 117 kg/m3.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Longfin pompano (Trachinotus blochii) growth performance in coastal cages was evaluated from fingerling to sub-market size using the ASA LVHD cage production model and ASA extruded, marine fish feeds. The cage trial was conducted at Ling Shui, Hainan, China. Pompano were stocked in three, 8.0-m3 cages at a density of 2,000 fish per cage (250 fish/m3). Pompano were fed to satiation daily with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat feed (47/15) to fish size 25 g, and with a 43% crude protein and 12% crude fat feed (43/12) from fish size >25 g. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. Fish in all trial cages were fed to satiation, three times daily for the first month, and twice daily thereafter. Pompano grew from 5 g to 208 g in 144 days of feeding. Average FCR with the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was 1.92:1. Average fish survival was 65.8%. Net economic return and return on investment were RMB 3,754/cage (RMB 469/m3) and 62%, respectively, at a fish market price of RMB 36/kg. Results of the trial indicate that longfin pompano perform well on extruded feed and yield high economic gain. Feed cost with the ASA extruded feeds was RMB 10.4 per kilogram of fish growth. While longfin pompano exhibited a better FCR than ovate (goldenfin) pompano cultured in 2001, the trial cooperator felt overall growth performance and survival of longfin pompano was not as good as with ovate pompano.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) growth performance in coastal cages was evaluated from fingerling to sub-market size using the ASA LVHD cage production model and ASA extruded, marine fish feeds. The cage trial was conducted at Ling Shui, Hainan, China. Pompano were stocked in three, 8.0-m3 cages at a density of 1,000 fish per cage. Pompano were fed to satiation daily with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat feed (47/15) to fish size 50 g, and with a 43% crude protein and 12% crude fat feed (43/12) from fish size >50 g. The 43/12 feed was formulated with 35% soybean meal. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. Fish in all trial cages were fed to satiation, three times daily for the first month, and twice daily thereafter. Pompano grew from 7 g to 349 g in 136 days. Average FCR with the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was 2.1:1. Average fish survival was 92.5%. Net economic return and return on investment were RMB 5,511/cage (RMB 689/m3) and 90.1%, respectively. Results of the trial indicate that pompano perform well on extruded feed and yield high economic gain. The trial pompano fed extruded feed were reported to have grown faster than pompano fed trash fish, and with a significantly lower feed cost. Feed cost with the ASA extruded feeds was RMB 10.08 per kilogram of fish growth. Cost of trash fish was reported to be in excess of RMB 20 per kilogram of fish growth. Other reported benefits of producing pompano with
extruded feed were simplified production management, reduced water pollution, and production of pompano with a better flavor than those cultured with trash fish.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2001

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

The American Soybean Association (ASA), in cooperation with the China National Fisheries Extension Center (NEC), the Guangdong Provincial Fisheries Extension Center, and the Long Gang Fisheries Research Institute coastal cage culture farm in Dong Shan Bay, conducted feeding trials with green grouper (Epinephelus awoara), red drum (Sciaenops ocellata) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) in 2000. The objective of the green grouper and pompano trials was to compare growth and economic performance of these species from fingerling to market size with a traditional fresh fish diet and a soymeal-based, extruded aquafeed. The objective of the red drum trial was to demonstrate that sub-market size red drum could be weaned from fresh fish to a soymeal-based manufactured feed and economically grown to market size on the manufactured feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) growth in cages was evaluated with fishmeal and soybean meal based feed rations. Two ioscaloric and isonitrogenous feed rations were formulated to contain 43% protein and 12% fat. One ration was formulated predominantly with fishmeal, while the other ration contained 40% dehulled soybean meal. Fish were stocked in 1.5-m3 cages at 400 fish per m3 and fed for 150 days. Pompano grew from 2.7 g to 222 g with the soy-based ration, and from 2.7 g to 218 g with the fishmeal-based ration. There was no significant difference in fish growth (P>0.05) with the two feeds. FCR averaged 2.13:1 and 2.23:1 for the soy-based and fishmeal-based rations, respectively. Survival averaged 72% for all cages and treatments. Net economic return was 12% higher and return to investment was 10% greater with the soy-based ration. Production of pompano in cages with manufactured feeds was demonstrated to be both technically and economically feasible. Replacement of fishmeal with dehulled, high protein soybean meal resulted in no reduction in fish growth and a significant cost savings for feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1999

Author
Michael C. Cremer and Zhang Jian