Resources

Description

Shrimp aquaculture presently produces approximately one million metric tons of shrimp annually. While some 20 species are cultured in various parts of the world, the majority of production is based on eight species (Table1). For the eastern hemisphere, the fast growing giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is the most important, while in the western hemisphere, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the leading production species.

Shrimp have a complicated life cycle (Figure 1). Eggs from the female are broadcast into the marine environment. Hatching from the egg, the larvae pass through three distinct stages, nauplius, zoea and mysis, before assuming the distinctive adult morphology as post-larval or juvenile shrimp. The distinction between post-larva and juvenile is slight. Generally, the term post-larva is used for the first
month and juvenile thereafter.

Depending on one’s focus, shrimp aquaculture either started as trapping and holding of wild seed (Ling et al., 1977), or with the development of modern production techniques arising out of the research of the Japanese scientist Motosaku Fujinaga (Fast,1992). The “trap and hold” approach requires little effort on the part of the farmer, but yields are low and unpredictable. Traditionally with this type of
approach, the shrimp feed and grow on available pond organisms. In some cases where additional seed is sourced from the wild, supplementary feed may be added to the pond. Availability of seed is often the limiting factor for shrimp farmers using the “trap and hold” approach.

This bottleneck was partially bypassed by Fujinaga’s development of methods allowing captive reproduction of shrimp, starting with gravid females obtained from the wild, and completion of the larval cycle in hatcheries.

Language
English

Author
Douglas E. Conklin
Language
English

Date Published
October 25, 2014

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

As shrimp prices have fallen and production costs increased, shrimp farmers are more concerned with economic efficiencies of the feed. This means they are quite receptive to moving away from traditional high fish meal diet to less expensive protein sources. Additionally, there are social pressures to minimize the use of fish meal and other marine ingredients in shrimp feed formulations. The most logical replacement for protein from fish meal is to increase the level of protein originating from soybeans which means that inclusion levels in shrimp feeds will need to be increased. To date we have identified most of the limiting nutrients in soy based diets and we have increased the inclusion levels as high as 58% of the ration. Although some nutrient restriction still need to be defined, nutrient density of the diet is a problem as the level of soybean meal is increased. This simply means, that a high protein ingredient is required to provide room in the formulations. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) can meet this need as it is suitably priced to not only replace fish meal but also provide the required room in diet formulation. Hence, the objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of diets formulated to contain increasing percentages of SPC (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12%), in production diets for L. vannamei reared under production conditions. Consequently, two parallel growth trials were conducted in outdoor tanks and ponds to evaluate the production potential of the various diets. In both trials, growth, feed conversion and survival were good and there were no significant differences between the four open formulation feeds containing up to 12% SPC. Based on present results, growth, feed conversion, survival and production yields were not effected by the use of SPC up to 12% of the diet. Hence, once can recommend that levels up to 12% are reasonable to use in commercial feed formulations for shrimp.

Language
English

Date Published
October 16, 2011

Author
D. Allen Davis, Ph.D.
Description

A shrimp feeding trial was run at INMARLACA Farm, located in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela to replace Fish Meal (FM) with Soybean Meal (SBM).

Language
English

Date Published
October 23, 2011

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

World shrimp production has been increasing for the past four decades. In 2004, production reached over 6 million tons. This unprecedented expansion has been primarily attributed to increased production from the shrimp farming activities. In 2004, more than 41% (2.5 million tons) of the world’s total shrimp production was from farming. The primary cost of production in shrimp farming is feed, with protein being the most expensive macronutrient in these diet formulations. Although marine fish meals and fish oils provide excellent sources of high quality essential amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals and attractants in aquaculture diets, we must consider the finite availability these resources and the impact their procurement has on the environment. In addition, demand for fishery products from other high profit sectors, such as the pet food industry, will force fish meal prices up until its usage in aquatic feeds will no longer be economically feasible. If aquaculture is to continue to be an increasing contributor to the human food supply, it is critical that aquaculture feeds become less reliant on marine fisheries products. Due to both economic pressures from high fish meal and fish oil prices and pressures from buyers and consumers requiring sustainable practices, the use of high levels of fish meal and fish oils is no longer acceptable. Currently, feed mill manufacturers and producers are taking a pragmatic approach by looking into practices that will not only reduce feed production costs, but also improve their public image. Increasing the use of soybean meal and other soy products in shrimp diet formulations should reduce feed costs and improve both the image and sustainability of this growing industry.

This study was part of a continuing project focusing on developing plant-based feeds for aquaculture; the current work was geared toward enhancing the lipid component of plant-based feeds. A systematic, stepwise approach has been developed to produce good scientific data and to ensure that larger scale pond based trials can follow with the highest potential for success. The ultimate goal of the research was to provide adequate information to the feed formulators to allow them to use the maximum level of soy products (soybean meal, soybean oil, and soy lecithin) in their feed formulations.

Previous studies have shown that fish meal can be replaced either singularly with animal by-product meal or in combination with plant protein sources without affecting the physical and nutritional quality of the feeds. However, the use of alternative protein sources is often done in combination with the use of marine oils to supply essential fatty acids and enhance the palatability of the diet. Soybean meal has been identified as a good alternative protein source due to its high protein content and relatively balanced amino acid profile. In previous studies we have maximized the use of soybean meal in shrimp feeds, however, there are numerous other products derived from soybeans that can be utilized in aquaculture diets including soy oil and soy lecithin which have yet to be optimized. Although it is unlikely that soy oil will be suitable as a complete fish oil replacement due to a lack of essential fatty acids, it may be possible to reduce fish oil use in plant-based shrimp feeds by diluting fish oil with soy oil. Another approach to enhancing the lipid component of plant-based feeds is the inclusion of soy lecithin. Phospholipids play an important role in maintaining cellular structure. They also enhance cholesterol transport, increase lipid retention, and may facilitate the pelleting process by acting as a lubricant. Soy lecithin, a primary source of phospholipids, has the potential to improve the lipid component of plant-based feeds.

The objectives of this study were: 1. To evaluate the response of Pacific White Shrimp to diets with increasing levels of dietary lecithin (0-2%) in conjunction with decreasing levels of fish oil to maintain the same dietary lipid level, 2. To evaluate the response of the shrimp to diets with decreasing levels of fish oil supplemented with increasing levels of soybean oil to maintain the targeted lipid content.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2005

Author
AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory
Description

As shrimp prices have fallen and production costs increased, shrimp farmers are more concerned with economic efficiencies of the feed. This means they are quite receptive to moving away from traditional high fish meal diet to less expensive protein sources. Additionally, there are social pressures to minimize the use of fish meal and other marine ingredients in shrimp feed formulations. The most logical replacement for protein from fish meal is to increase the level of protein originating from soybeans which means that inclusion levels in shrimp feeds will need to be increased. To date we have identified most of the limiting nutrients in soy based diets and we have increased the inclusion levels as high as 58% of the ration. Although some nutrient restriction still need to be defined, nutrient density of the diet is a problem as the level of soybean meal is increased. This simply means, that a high protein ingredient is required to provide room in the formulations. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) can meet this need as it is suitably priced to not only replace fish meal but also provide the required room in diet formulation. Hence, the objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of diets formulated to contain increasing percentages of SPC (0%, 4%, 8%,and 12%), in production diets for L. vannamei reared under production conditions. Consequently, two parallel growth trials were conducted in outdoor tanks and ponds to evaluate the production potential of the various diets. In both trials, growth, feed conversion and survival were good and there were no significant differences between the four open formulation feeds containing up to 12% SPC. Based on present results, growth, feed conversion, survival and production yields were not effected by the use of SPC up to 12% of the diet. Hence, once can recommend that levels up to 12% are reasonable to use in commercial feed formulations for shrimp.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures