Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

Crucian carp fingerlings were grown to market size in ponds in Chengdu using the ASA 80:20 production model and a combination of local and ASA soymeal-based growout feeds. Fish were stocked in three ponds of approximately 3-mu each at 2,000 crucian carp per mu together with 150 silver carp fingerlings per mu. Crucian carp were stocked at size 20 g and grew to an average weight of 214 g per fish in 164 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 406 kg/mu for crucian carp and 137 kg/mu for silver carp. Net production for crucian carp averaged 366 kg/mu for the 9.9 mu of trial ponds. Average crucian carp survival was 95%. FCR for the combination of local and ASA feeds was 1.63:1. Net economic return was RMB 645 per mu. ROI ranged from 10% to 30.4% for thethree trial ponds. The average ROI for the three ponds was 21.2%. Low economic return in one of the ponds was the result of a silver carp fish kill in mid-August. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that crucian carp reached the target market size 15 days ahead of schedule using the ASA technology and feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Fry to fingerling growth performance of Beijing and Suzhou strains of crucian carp were compared in a 4-month feeding trial at the Beijing Xu Xing Zhang Fish Culture Farm. Crucian carp were grown in ponds using the ASA 80:20 production model and soymeal-based 41/11 fry and 36/7 fingerling feeds. Fish stocking density was 5,000 crucian carp fry and 1,000 silver carp fry per mu. Each fish strain was replicated in three ponds. The local Beijing strain of crucian carp grew from 0.6 g to 55 g in 122 days of feeding. Suzhou strain crucian carp imported from a fish farm in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, grew from 0.6 g to 60 g in the same period. Growth of the Suzhou strain crucian carp was significantly better (P<0.05) than the local Beijing strain. FCR was 1.42:1 for the Beijing strain and 1.34:1 for the Suzhou strain, and was also significantly different (P<0.05). Net income was 15.4% higher and ROI 13.2% higher for the Suzhou strain crucian carp. Results of the trial indicate that the Beijing farm should upgrade its crucian carp breeding stock to a superior strain.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Three fingerling sizes of crucian carp were grown to market size in ponds using the ASA 80:20 production model and a soy-based diet. Fish were Fengzhen crucian x Xingguo red common carp bred in 1998 at the Tai Xing Fish Stock Farm in Jiangsu Province. Fish were stocked at 1000 crucian carp per mu together with 60 silver carp per mu. Fingerlings of sizes 63 g and 44 g grew respectively to 411 g and 383 g in 212 days of feeding. Fingerlings of size 32 g grew to 363 g in 214 days of feeding. The 63-g fingerlings reached a market size of 250 g in 150 days, while the 44-g and 32-g fish reached 250 g in 158 and 165 days, respectively. Stocking fingerlings of different sizes may be a good management strategy for fish farmers interested in extending the marketing season for crucian carp. Feeding for 212 to and 214 days yielded 363-g to 411-g fish having high market value because of their large size. FCR with the ASA all-plant protein, soy-based diet averaged 1.50 to 1.61. Use of this diet in the extruded, floating form allowed the Tai Xing farm manager to closely monitor fish feeding performance and fish health and prevented over-feeding of fish and wasting of feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1999

Author
Michael C. Cremer and Zhang Jian
Description

Feed particle size requirements for crucian carp of 2-cm to 7-cm total length were determined in a joint study by ASA and the Zhejiang Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute in Huzhou, China. Results were used to formulate feed size recommendations for fish farmers producing crucian carp using feed-based production technologies. Crumble feeds of size 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm are recommended for fry of 2-cm and 3-cm total length, respectively. Crucian carp fry can be weaned to a 1.5-mm extruded pellet at 5-cm total length.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1999

Author
Michael C. Cremer and Zhang Jian
Description

Fourteen pond trials were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to assess the fingerling to market growth of crucian carp, pacu, tilapia and wuchang carp (bream) with a variety of aquafeed formulations. The objective of the trials was to test and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of production of these species in 80:20 culture systems with feeds formulated primarily from plant proteins. An all-plant protein diet (‘J’) was tested against similar diets (‘H’ and ‘K’) containing primarily plant protein and 5% fish meal.

The all-plant protein ‘J’ diet produced as good or better growth than the ‘H’ diet containing fish meal with crucian carp. Crucian carp of approximately 50 g grew to an average of 227 g in six trials. The production target of 250 g was reached in only two trials. Float and sink forms of the test diets produced inconsistent results. Observations indicate crucian carp are not aggressive feeders and may require training at the fry to fingerling stage to readily adapt to floating feeds. Economic return with crucian carp was highly variable.

Pacu reached the production target of >400 g in two trials conducted and with all three diets tested (‘H’, ‘J’ and ‘K’). There was no difference in pacu growth among the test diets, or among floating and sinking forms of the ‘H’ diet. Feed conversion ratios of 1.2-1.6 indicated rapid and economical growth of pacu on all diets.

Nile tilapia growth was best on the ‘K’ diet, although tilapia grew rapidly on both the ‘J’ and ‘K’ diets tested in one trial in 1995. Average daily growth rates were 8.3% and 9.7% of body weight, respectively, with 31-g fingerlings growing to 355-410 g in 126 days. A 1996 trial stocked fingerlings of 6 g that were unable to attain market size by the end of the production season. There was no growth difference of fingerlings with the ‘J’ and ‘H’ feeds.

Bream growth was also better on the ‘K’ diet, with only minor variations in growth among the ‘H’ and ‘J’ diets in three trials. Floating feeds produced better growth than sinking feeds with bream. Average bream growth, feed conversion ratio and economic return with the three diets was 356 g, 1.8 and Y3255/mu.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1996

Author
H.R. Schmittou, Zhang Jian and M.C. Cremer
Description

Twenty-three cage trials were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to assess fry-fingerling and fingerling-market production potential of Nile tilapia, common carp, crucian carp, wuchang carp (bream), and channel catfish in low-volume high-density (LVHD) cages. The objective of the trials was to test and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of production of these species in LVHD cage culture systems with feeds formulated primarily from plant proteins. An all-plant protein diet was tested against similar diets containing 5-10% fish meal.

The all-plant protein ‘J’ diet produced as good or better growth than the ‘H’ and ‘K’ diets containing 5% fish meal in 6 of 8 comparison trials with nile tilapia, 5 of 7 trials with common carp, and all trials with crucian carp and bream. Nile tilapia averaged daily weight gains of 5.4% and 3.1% per day for 50 g and >96 g fingerlings, respectively. Average net income was Y335/m3 ($40.55/m3) for all Nile tilapia trials reporting economic data. Highest net income was Y562/m3 ($68.04/m3) with the ‘J’ floating feed. Nile tilapia fry to fingerling production inLVHD cages was technically and economically feasible, with average net economic returns of Y360/m3 ($43.58/m3).

Common carp did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in formulated feeds. Fish in seven cage trials gained an average of 2.6% of body weight per day on all diets tested. Best comparative growth performance was with the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds. The ‘H’ feed produced 7-13% better growth than the ‘K’ feed in two comparison trials. There were no differences in growthwith the ‘K’ and ‘S’ feeds in one comparative trial. Stocking density had no effect on common carp growth. Fish at 400-500/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.65% of body weight per day, while fish at 270-300/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.5% of body weight per day.

Crucian carp fingerlings of 20-26 g did not attain a target market size of 250 g in two cage production trials. Maximum growth with 26-g fingerlings was 177 g with the ‘J’ feed. Stocking of larger fingerlings is indicated to reach market size by the end of the production season. Average FCR of 2.45 was high and indicates a need to modify feed formulations for crucian carp in cages.

Bream did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in one LVHD trial conducted. Floating forms of the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds produced 6.7% better growth than the sinking forms of the feedsat the 330/m3 density tested. Fingerling stocking size of 35 g was too small to produce market size fish in this trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1996

Author
H.R. Schmittou, Zhang Jian and M.C. Cremer1