Resources

Description

World aquaculture production is dominated by omnivorous fish species that live in freshwater, including various carp and catfish species. Soybean meal is a prominent ingredient used in prepared diets for these species, often constituting 50 to 60% of the total formulation. Such levels of incorporation are possible due to adequate palatability of soybean meal and its excellent nutritional value for these species, including high levels of crude protein, complementary amino acid profile and relatively high nutrient digestibility. For many omnivorous freshwater species cultured throughout the world, soybean meal has largely replaced more costly protein feedstuffs in diet formulations, such as fish meal, while maintaining optimal fish production. As a result, the cost of fish production has been reduced substantially. While aquacultural production continues to expand worldwide to meet the growing demand for seafood, the use of soybean products will play an even more important role in providing high-quality protein for various fish species.

Language
English

Author
Delbert M. Gatlin III
Description

A feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate channel catfish production in 4-m3 cages with an ASA-IM soy-based feed and the ASA-IM Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage technology. The feeding trial was conducted at the Wanan County Fishery Bureau cage fish farm in Wanan Reservoir, Jiangxi Province, China. The Wanan Country Fishery Bureau independently compared catfish production in the 4-m3 LVHD cages using the ASA-IM feed and a locally produced Chinese fish feed.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A cooperative feeding trial was conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Taihu County Fishery Extension Station, Anhui Province, China, to demonstrate channel catfish production in 4-m3 cages with an ASA-IM soy-based feed and the ASA-IM Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage technology. The feeding trial was conducted at the Taihu County Fishery Extension Center Cage Demonstration Fish Farm as a means to demonstrate the ASA-IM technology and soy-based feed to area fish farmers.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding trial was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Guangdong Provincial Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of channel catfish from fingerling to market size using the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology and soy-based feed. The demonstration trial was conducted at the Nanhai Keda Hengsheng Fishery Company Ltd. fish farm near Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. It was the second year of a sequential two-year ASA-IM demonstration trial to show the value of soy-based feeds for growing channel catfish from fry to market.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A series of feeding trials was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program, the Heilongjiang Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Taixing Fish Stock Farm of Jiangsu Province, the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center, the Hainan Fish Breeding Center of the Beijing Municipal Fishery Extension Center, and the Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Lab of the Feed Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to evaluate a soy protein fingerling feed for key cultured freshwater fish species in China. The soy protein fingerling feed used soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a replacement for fishmeal in the ASA-IM 36/71 fingerling feed. Feeding trials comparing the standard ASA-IM 36/7 feed with fishmeal (36/7 FM) and the soy protein 36/7 feed with SPC (36/7 SPC) were conducted during the 2007 aquaculture production season at five locations in China with common carp, grass carp, tilapia and channel catfish. The objectives of replacing fishmeal with SPC in the fingerling feed were: 1) to provide feed millers with an option to fishmeal as a means to reduce feed cost associated with the rising price of fishmeal; and 2) to improve industry sustainability by providing a fingerling feed in which the majority of protein is supplied from renewable plant sources.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2007

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua, Zhang Jian and Timothy O’Keefe
Description

A feeding trial was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Nanjing Municipal Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of channel catfish using the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology and soy-based feed. The demonstration trial was conducted at the Extension Center fish farm near Nanjing, Jiangsu Province.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding trial was jointly conducted by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Jiangxi Provincial Fishery Extension Center to compare channel catfish production in Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cages with an ASA-IM soy-based feed versus production with a locally manufactured feed. The feeding trial was conducted at the Wanan County Fishery Bureau cage fish farm in Wanan Reservoir, Jiangxi Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding trial was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Anhui Provincial Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of channel catfish using the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology and soy-based feed. The demonstration trial was conducted at the Extension Center Demonstration Fish Farm in Feixi, near Hefei, Anhui Province.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding trial was conducted cooperatively by the American Soybean Association International Marketing (ASA-IM) program and the Guangdong Provincial Fishery Extension Center to demonstrate feed-based production of channel catfish fingerlings using the ASA-IM 80:20 pond technology and soy-based feeds. The demonstration trial was conducted at the Nanhai Keda Hengsheng Fishery Company Ltd. fish farm near Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Language
English

Date Published
October 29, 2006

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhou Enhua and Zhang Jian
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in Anjie City, Jiangxi Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of channel catfish using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based growout feed. Catfish were stocked in three, 2.0-mu ponds at a density of 600 channel catfish and 100 silver carp per mu. Channel catfish grew from 52 g to an average weight of 710 g per fish in 187 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 415 kg/mu for channel catfish and 72 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for channel catfish and silver carp were 97.6% and 100%, respectively. Channel catfish FCR with the all-plant protein, soymeal-based feed averaged 1.31:1. Average net economic return was RMB 1,154 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 41.2%. Channel catfish exhibited good growth, feeding behavior and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding demonstration trial was conducted at the Jiaguanghu Fish Farm in Huainan City, Anhui Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of channel catfish using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and soy-based feed. This was the second year of a two-year trial at the Jiaguanghu farm that began in 2000 with a catfish fry to fingerling pond trial. In the 2001 trial, catfish fingerlings were stocked in three ponds of size 3.0-mu each at a density of 600 channel catfish and 100 silver carp fingerlings per mu. Catfish were fed a 32/6 extruded, floating pellet feed formulated as an all-plant protein ration, with soybean meal as the primary protein source. Channel catfish grew from 59 g to an average weight of 672 g per fish in 156 days of feeding. Gross production of channel catfish and silver carp averaged 402 kg/mu and 77 kg/mu, respectively. Average survival rates for channel catfish and silver carp were 99.7% and 98.5%. Channel catfish FCR with the soymeal-based feeds averaged 1.44:1. Average net economic return was RMB 1,633/mu. Return on investment (ROI) averaged 35.5%. The ASA 80:20 technology and extruded, soy-based feeds simplified production management and yielded better fish performance and improved water quality, and required less labor, than the farm’s traditional practices. Harvested catfish were of uniform size, and had good body shape and minimal fat deposition. No off-flavor was experienced in fish from the three trial ponds. Local farmers visited throughout the trial to monitor progress and expressed interest in adopting the technology and feed based on their observations of catfish performance.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2001

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding demonstration trial was conducted at the Jiao Gang Hu Fish Farm in Huainan, Anhui Province, to demonstrate fry to fingerling growth performance of channel catfish using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and soymeal-based fry and fingerling feeds. Fish were stocked in three, 3-mu ponds at a densities of 8,000 channel catfish fry and 1,000 silver carp fry per mu. Channel catfish grew from 1.6 g to an average of 49.3 g per fish in 101 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 353.5 kg/mu for channel catfish and 50.1 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for channel catfish and silver carp were 89.4% and 81.5%, respectively. Channel catfish FCR for the combination of ASA 41/11 fry and 36/7 fingerling feeds was 0.93:1. Average net economic return was RMB 5,665/mu per mu, and average ROI was 110.7%. Channel catfish exhibited good growth, feed conversion, survival and economic return with the ASA 80:20 pond technology and soymeal-based feeds. Compared to normal production of channel catfish at the Jiao Gang Hu Fish Farm, fish survival was reported to have increased by 25-30%, FCR was reduced by 100%, and ROI was increased by >60% with the ASA technologies and feeds.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Growth performance of normally pigmented and albino channel catfish was compared in cages at Min Qing Reservoir in Fujian Province. Catfish were cultured in floating cages using the ASA LVHD cage technology model and a soymeal-based, 32% protein floating feed. Normally pigmented and albino channel catfish were stocked in six, 1-m3 cages at a density of 400 fish/m3. Each treatment was replicated in three cages. Normally pigmented channel catfish grew from 83 g to 494 g in 142 days of feeding. Albino catfish grew from 83 g to 392 g in the same period. FCR was 1.56:1 for the normal catfish and 1.67:1 for the albino catfish. Gross production and survival averaged 193.8 kg/m3 and 90.4% for the normal catfish, and 148.8 kg/ m3 and 91.5% for the albino catfish. Fish growth, survival and production per m3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) for the normally pigmented catfish group, but there was no significant difference in FCR (P>0.05) for the two groups. Average net economic return and ROI for the normal catfish were RMB 1,384/m3 and 72.4%, respectively. Average net economic return and ROI for the albino catfish were RMB 1,309/m3 and 70.8%. Net return and ROI were significantly different (P<0.05). Normally pigmented catfish yielded a higher net return and ROI than albino catfish, despite albino catfish having a 29% higher market value. Results of this trial were opposite of U.S. studies that found no production differences between normally pigmented and albino channel catfish, and indicate there is probably significant inbreeding in the albino catfish stock tested in this trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2000

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) growth in 1-m3 cages was evaluated with three extruded feed rations with varying soybean meal and fishmeal inclusion rates. One ration was formulated as an all- plant protein diet with dehulled soybean meal as the primary protein source. The second ration was formulated with dehulled soybean meal as the primary protein source, but with 5% fishmeal. The third ration was formulated with fishmeal as the primary protein source. All three rations were designed to be nutritionally the same, with 32% protein and 6% fat. Channel catfish stocked at 400 fish per m3 grew from 69g to 467 g, 500 g and 532 g, respectively, on the all-plant protein soy-based, soy-based with 5% fishmeal, and fishmeal-based rations. Growth was significantly different (P<0.05) among the three rations. FCR for the soy-based, soy-based with 5% fishmeal, and fishmeal-based rations was 1.45:1, 1.34:1 and 1.25:1, respectively. Net production for the soy-based, soy-based with 5% fishmeal, and fishmeal-based rations averaged 157 kg/m3, 171 kg/m3 and 183kg/m3, respectively. Survival averaged 99% for all feed treatments. Net economic return at the prevailing market price of RMB 21/kg was RMB 2147/m3, RMB 2373/m3 and RMB 2570/m3, respectively, for the all-plant protein soy-based, soy-based with 5% fishmeal, and fishmeal-based feed rations. Return to investment averaged 124%, 134% and 139% for the soy-based, soy-based with 5% fishmeal, and fishmeal-based ration treatments, respectively. Net economic return and return to investment were significantly different (P<0.05) among the three feed treatments.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1999

Author
Michael C. Cremer and Zhang Jian
Description

Twenty-three cage trials were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to assess fry-fingerling and fingerling-market production potential of Nile tilapia, common carp, crucian carp, wuchang carp (bream), and channel catfish in low-volume high-density (LVHD) cages. The objective of the trials was to test and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of production of these species in LVHD cage culture systems with feeds formulated primarily from plant proteins. An all-plant protein diet was tested against similar diets containing 5-10% fish meal.

The all-plant protein ‘J’ diet produced as good or better growth than the ‘H’ and ‘K’ diets containing 5% fish meal in 6 of 8 comparison trials with nile tilapia, 5 of 7 trials with common carp, and all trials with crucian carp and bream. Nile tilapia averaged daily weight gains of 5.4% and 3.1% per day for 50 g and >96 g fingerlings, respectively. Average net income was Y335/m3 ($40.55/m3) for all Nile tilapia trials reporting economic data. Highest net income was Y562/m3 ($68.04/m3) with the ‘J’ floating feed. Nile tilapia fry to fingerling production inLVHD cages was technically and economically feasible, with average net economic returns of Y360/m3 ($43.58/m3).

Common carp did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in formulated feeds. Fish in seven cage trials gained an average of 2.6% of body weight per day on all diets tested. Best comparative growth performance was with the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds. The ‘H’ feed produced 7-13% better growth than the ‘K’ feed in two comparison trials. There were no differences in growthwith the ‘K’ and ‘S’ feeds in one comparative trial. Stocking density had no effect on common carp growth. Fish at 400-500/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.65% of body weight per day, while fish at 270-300/m3 grew at an average rate of 2.5% of body weight per day.

Crucian carp fingerlings of 20-26 g did not attain a target market size of 250 g in two cage production trials. Maximum growth with 26-g fingerlings was 177 g with the ‘J’ feed. Stocking of larger fingerlings is indicated to reach market size by the end of the production season. Average FCR of 2.45 was high and indicates a need to modify feed formulations for crucian carp in cages.

Bream did not demonstrate a requirement for fishmeal in one LVHD trial conducted. Floating forms of the ‘H’ and ‘J’ feeds produced 6.7% better growth than the sinking forms of the feedsat the 330/m3 density tested. Fingerling stocking size of 35 g was too small to produce market size fish in this trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 1996

Author
H.R. Schmittou, Zhang Jian and M.C. Cremer1