Resources

Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, to evaluate fingerling to market growth performance of wuchang bream using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 5.0-mu ponds at a density of 800 wuchang bream and 100 silver carp per mu. Wuchang bream grew from 50 g to an average weight of 462 g per fish in 188 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 387 kg/mu for wuchang bream and 113 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for wuchang bream and silver carp were 100+% and 95%, respectively. Wuchang bream FCR with the all-plant protein, soymeal-based feed averaged 1.22:1. Average net economic return was RMB 705 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 34.5%. Wuchang bream exhibited good growth, feeding behavior and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding demonstration was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of wuchang bream using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 2.2-mu ponds at a density of 1,000 wuchang bream and 100 silver carp per mu. Wuchang bream grew from 65 g to an average weight of 480 g per fish in 128 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 480 kg/mu for wuchang bream and 68 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for wuchang bream and silver carp were 99.9% and 100%, respectively. Wuchang bream FCR with the all-plant protein, soymeal-based feed averaged 1.10:1. Average net economic return was RMB 488 per mu at market prices of RMB 6/kg for wuchang bream and RMB 2/kg for silver carp. Return on investment (ROI) for the three demonstration ponds averaged 19.3%. Wuchang bream exhibited rapid growth, aggressive feeding behavior and efficient FCR with the ASA soymeal- based feed and 80:20 production technology.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

The growth performance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) was evaluated in an ASA coastal cage trial in Quanzhou, China. Red drum were stocked at 312.5 fish per m3 in three replicate cages of size 6.4-m3 and fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA extruded marine fish fingerling and growout feeds. Red drum grew from 14 g to 232 g in 103 days, with an average FCR of 1.54:1. Average fish survival was 73%. High mortality early in the trial and strong coastal currents required modifications to trial implementation and construction of the cage frames.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2003

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Growth performance of red tilapia was demonstrated from fingerling to market stages in an ASA LVHD coastal cage trial using an all-plant protein, soy-based growout feed. Red tilapia in three replicate cages of size 6.4-m3 were fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA 32/6 soybean meal-based feed in extruded, floating pellet form. Average monthly salinity in the Longmen area was 7.5 ppt, within a range of 0 ppt to 19 ppt. Tilapia grew from 64 g to 493 in 124 days, with an average FCR of 1.41:1. Fish survival averaged 91.7%. Fish production averaged 724 kg per cage (113 kg/m3). Net economic return averaged RMB 1,080 per m3, at an average market price of RMB 16/kg for red tilapia cultured in brackish water. Return to investment averaged 48.3% for the three trial cages. The trial demonstrated the feasibility of culturing red tilapia in cages in a coastal area with fluctuating salinity and overall brackishwater conditions.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

The growth performance of rockfish (Sebastodes fuscescens) was evaluated in an ASA coastal cage trial in Dalian, China. Rockfish were stocked at 175 fish per m3 in three replicate cages of size 8.0-m3 and were fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA 43/12 extruded marine fish growout feed. Rockfish grew from 86 g to 216 in 110 days, with an average FCR of 1.23:1. Fish survival averaged 96%. Growth of rockfish was reported to be slow during warm summer months, but that growth improved at water temperatures <20oC. Rockfish may be a candidate species for coastal cage culture, but further evaluation, particularly in cooler coastal waters, is required to evaluate species potential.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, to demonstrate fry to fingerling production of crucian carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and soy-based feeds, together with zero water exchange technology. Crucian carp were stocked in three, 3.5-mu ponds at a density of 4,000 crucian carp and 1,000 silver carp per mu. Crucian carp grew from 0.25 g to an average weight of 31.8 g per fish in 104 days of feeding. Crucian carp FCR with the ASA soymeal- based fry and fingerling feeds averaged 1.18:1. The average survival rate for crucian carp was 77.3%. Average net economic return was RMB 248 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 27%. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that it was feasible to culture crucian carp fingerlings with the ASA feeds and 80:20 model, together with zero water exchange technology. Crucian carp exhibited good growth performance and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feeds and 80:20 production technology. The Pengze crucian carp from Jiangxi Province tested in this trial were found to have a poorer feeding response than other varieties of crucian carp previously tested, such as the Yuyi. The use of zero water exchange was found to be of critical importance in water restricted regions such as northeast China, and its application is recommended for fish production throughout this region.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Emperor snapper (Lutjanus sebae) growth performance in coastal cages was evaluated from fingerling to sub-market size using the ASA LVHD cage production model and ASA soy-inclusion, extruded marine fish feeds. The cage trial was conducted at Ling Shui, Hainan, China. Snapper were stocked in three, 8.0-m3 cages at a density of 2,000 fish per cage (250 fish/m3). Snapper were fed to satiation daily with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat feed (47/15) to fish size 25 g, and with a 43% crude protein and 12% crude fat feed (43/12) from fish size >25 g. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. Fish in all trial cages were fed to satiation, three times daily for the first month, and twice daily thereafter. Pompano grew from 1.4 g to 77 g in 124 days of feeding. Average FCR with the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was 1.76:1. Average fish survival was 81%. Fish in one of the three trial cages were lost when raft supports were destroyed in a typhoon and the cage submerged, allowing the fish to escape. Results of the trial indicate that emperor snapper perform well on extruded feed. Growth performance and FCR were acceptable, but high cost of juvenile fish (RMB 2.3 per 1-g fish) resulted in net economic loss. Emperor snapper exhibited good potential for LVHD cage culture, but production will depend on availability of lower cost and higher quality fish.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

Longfin pompano (Trachinotus blochii) growth performance in coastal cages was evaluated from fingerling to sub-market size using the ASA LVHD cage production model and ASA extruded, marine fish feeds. The cage trial was conducted at Ling Shui, Hainan, China. Pompano were stocked in three, 8.0-m3 cages at a density of 2,000 fish per cage (250 fish/m3). Pompano were fed to satiation daily with a 47% crude protein and 15% crude fat feed (47/15) to fish size 25 g, and with a 43% crude protein and 12% crude fat feed (43/12) from fish size >25 g. Both feeds were fed in extruded, floating pellet form. Fish in all trial cages were fed to satiation, three times daily for the first month, and twice daily thereafter. Pompano grew from 5 g to 208 g in 144 days of feeding. Average FCR with the combination of 47/15 and 43/12 feeds was 1.92:1. Average fish survival was 65.8%. Net economic return and return on investment were RMB 3,754/cage (RMB 469/m3) and 62%, respectively, at a fish market price of RMB 36/kg. Results of the trial indicate that longfin pompano perform well on extruded feed and yield high economic gain. Feed cost with the ASA extruded feeds was RMB 10.4 per kilogram of fish growth. While longfin pompano exhibited a better FCR than ovate (goldenfin) pompano cultured in 2001, the trial cooperator felt overall growth performance and survival of longfin pompano was not as good as with ovate pompano.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan
Description

As shrimp prices have fallen and production costs increased, shrimp farmers are more concerned with economic efficiencies of the feed. This means they are quite receptive to moving away from traditional high fish meal diet to less expensive protein sources. Additionally, there are social pressures to minimize the use of fish meal and other marine ingredients in shrimp feed formulations. The most logical replacement for protein from fish meal is to increase the level of protein originating from soybeans which means that inclusion levels in shrimp feeds will need to be increased. To date we have identified most of the limiting nutrients in soy based diets and we have increased the inclusion levels as high as 58% of the ration. Although some nutrient restriction still need to be defined, nutrient density of the diet is a problem as the level of soybean meal is increased. This simply means, that a high protein ingredient is required to provide room in the formulations. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) can meet this need as it is suitably priced to not only replace fish meal but also provide the required room in diet formulation. Hence, the objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of diets formulated to contain increasing percentages of SPC (0%, 4%, 8%,and 12%), in production diets for L. vannamei reared under production conditions. Consequently, two parallel growth trials were conducted in outdoor tanks and ponds to evaluate the production potential of the various diets. In both trials, growth, feed conversion and survival were good and there were no significant differences between the four open formulation feeds containing up to 12% SPC. Based on present results, growth, feed conversion, survival and production yields were not effected by the use of SPC up to 12% of the diet. Hence, once can recommend that levels up to 12% are reasonable to use in commercial feed formulations for shrimp.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
United States Soybean Export Council
Description

Aquaculture feed ingredients tend to be mostly by-products of processing or milling industries, but also consist of natural products. In everyday formulation of diets, these ingredients are included and substitutions made within mixtures in accordance with market price, local availability and composition. Basically, the concept is to use available ingredients in the most economical way to provide the essential nutrient content and balance of the final diet. Different proportions of less expensive ingredients can often be combined to achieve the nutrient balance of more expensive ones. However, it is also necessary to consider factors such as the quality, palatability and functional properties of ingredients as well as the possible content of anti-nutritional components that are known to affect the growth and health of fish.

The purpose of this paper is to briefly review published information about five of the most commonly available feed ingredients of plant origin, and to provide guidelines for quality standards and usage of these ingredients in aquaculture feeds.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Plant Protein Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds: Use Considerations & Quality Standards
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of pacu Piractus branchypomum using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all-plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 4-mu ponds at a density of 900 pacu and 100 silver carp per mu. Pacu grew from 40 g to an average weight of 497 g per fish in 80 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 443 kg/mu for pacu and 102 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for pacu and silver carp were 99% and 98%, respectively. The soy-based feed yielded a FCR with pacu of 1.24:1. Average net economic return was RMB 715 permu. Average return on investment (ROI) was 31.2%. This compared to an FCR of 2.84:1 with the farm’s traditional feed, which yielded an ROI of –8.6%. Pacu demonstrated excellent growth performance and feed conversion efficiency with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology in this trial. Pacu produced in the trial were uniform in size with good body color and conformation.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Historical inclusion rates of fish meal in aquaculture feeds are unsustainable because of limited supply and increasing costs. Alternative plant protein sources must be identified. The goal of this project was to systematically examine the antinutritional factors in soybean meal and their effects on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. A Managed Research Program, funded by the United Soybean Board, Indiana Soybean Alliance, Illinois Soybean Association, Iowa Soybean Association and Ohio Soybean Council, was established that included participants from seven US institutions. The University of Idaho, in collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Technology Center, and Michigan State University evaluated the effects of trypsin inhibitors (TI) in both species and the effects of extrusion conditions on TI activity. Purdue University evaluated the effects of soybean lectins in diets fed to both species and the interactive effects of feeding lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides to rainbow trout. The Ohio State University examined the effects of soy saponins on rainbow trout. The Universities of Maine and Wisconsin evaluated the effects of soybean isoflavones, with emphasis on genistein, on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. The University of Maine also conducted taste tests of trout and salmon to characterize flavors of salmonids fed soy-based diets. Kentucky State University conducted an economic analysis on feeding high soybean diets to salmonids in order to develop least cost diet formulations utilizing the highest possible levels of soybean meal. The approach undertaken was a relatively complete series of studies that described the effects of soybean antinutritional factors on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon.

The key findings of the Soy-in-Aquaculture Program indicated which particular soybean antinutritional factors have been limiting the amount of soybean meal fed to salmonids. Lectins and trypsin inhibitors were both identified as exerting antinutritional effects on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon when included in the diet at levels corresponding to a 35-40% soybean meal diet. In a study with rainbow trout, feeding trypsin inhibitors resulted in a 12% reduction in growth and feeding lectins resulted in a 14% reduction in growth. Saponins did not exert antinutritional effects when fed to rainbow trout, and were shown to have a potential benefit by enhancing the immune response. There were no observed negative effects (growth or reproduction) as a result of feeding soy genistein to rainbow trout; however, when fed to Atlantic salmon, smoltification was inhibited. Fillets from fish fed soybean meal were lighter in color, but there were no detectable differences in flavor when sampled by an untrained panel. Additional findings of the Soy-in-Aquaculture Program indicated that a higher extruder barrel temperature and shorter retention time may be the optimum settings when extruding high-soybean meal diets for salmonids. Finally, using least-cost modeling, soy inclusion rates were calculated to be 15 and 25% in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout diets, respectively. The results of these studies identified specific antinutritional factors limiting the amount of soy ingredients used in salmonid diets. These results show farmers and processors which antinutritional factors need to be reduced in soy ingredients.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Steven D. Hart (Purdue University), Frederic T. Barrows (Agricultural Research Service, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station), Konrad Dabrowski (Ohio State University), Siddhartha Dasgupta (Kentucky State University), Donald L. Garling (Michigan State)
Description

Aquacultural production of trout and salmon, collectively referred to as salmonids, is one of the largest global aquaculture industries and currently uses a disproportionately high amount of fish meal in dietary formulations. Sustainable production and growth in salmonid culture demands identification of alternative high-protein feed ingredients. The chemical composition of soy protein concentrate (SPC) suggests it has potential has an ingredient in diets fed to salmonids. There have been over 30 published studies of SPC use in diets for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. The data indicate small trout and salmon are more sensitive to SPC inclusion in diets than larger fish. SPC can provide up to 50% of the dietary crude protein in diets for small fish. Fish meal can be completely replaced in diets for larger fish. Results from digestibility studies indicate high nutrient availability from SPC. Methionine supplementation appears necessary for salmonids and taurine supplementation was recently identified as beneficial in SPC-based diets for trout. The form of phosphorus in SPC remains problematic, but incorporation of phytase or pretreatment of SPC with phytase improved phosphorus availability. Sensory characteristics of salmonid fillets fed SPC have been lighter in color than those from fish fed fish meal, but texture and flavor have not been adversely impacted. Several dietary formulations are available that have been tested in the target species. Ingredient cost hampered use of SPC in the 1990’s and remains an issue in the 21st century. However, given the escalating price of fish meal and demand for that commodity, use of SPC in salmonid diets appears promising.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Steven D. Hart and Paul B. Brown
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of common carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all-plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 2.4-mu ponds at a density of 700 common carp and 100 silver carp per mu. Common carp grew from 80 g to an average weight of 668 g per fish in 99 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 466 kg/mu for common carp and 79 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for common carp and silver carp were 99.6% and 100%, respectively. Common carp FCR with the soymeal-based feeds averaged 1.46:1. Average net economic return was RMB 371 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 15.4%. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that common carp exhibited good growth performance and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology. Common carp reached the target market size in just 99 days and had good quality and market acceptance. The use of extruded, floating feed significantly reduced labor costs, lowered fish FCR, improved water quality, and allowed production of healthy and disease-free fish without the use of drugs or chemicals.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of grass carp using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all-plant protein, 66% soy-product grass carp feed. Fish were stocked in three, 5-mu ponds at a density of 760 grass carp and 100 silver carp per mu. Grass carp grew from 49 g to an average weight of 751 g per fish in 190 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 544 kg/mu for grass carp and 115 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for grass carp and silver carp were 95.4% and 99%, respectively. Grass carp FCR with the 66% soy product feed averaged 1.36:1. Average net economic return was RMB 720 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 27%. Production and economic averages are for two ponds only, as fish were poached from one pond just before harvest. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that grass carp exhibited excellent feeding behavior, growth performance and FCR with the ASA 66% soy-product feed and 80:20 production technology. Grass carp reached the target market size and had good body shape and conformation, with little size variation. Grass carp were reported to have better taste than fish cultured on the farm using traditional techniques. Water quality was also reported to be much better than normal, and no disease problems occurred. The use of extruded, floating feed significantly reduced labor costs, lowered fish
FCR and improved water quality, and allowed production of healthy fish without the use of drugs or chemicals.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, to demonstrate fry to fingerling performance of wuchang bream using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and ASA soymeal-based fry and fingerling feeds. Fish were stocked in three, 5.0-mu ponds at a density of 9,000 wuchang bream and 1,000 silver carp per mu. Wuchang bream grew from 0.1 g to an average weight of 50.8 g per fish in 137 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 306 kg/mu for wuchang bream and 62 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for wuchang bream and silver carp were 67% and 43%, respectively. Low survival rates were the result of under-stocking. Wuchang bream FCR with the soymeal-based feeds averaged 0.93:1. Average net economic return was RMB 652 per mu, for an average return on investment (ROI) of 33.6%. Results of the feeding demonstration showed that wuchang bream exhibited good growth, feeding behavior and FCR with the ASA soymeal-based feeds and 80:20 production technology during the fry to fingerling phase. In addition, the soy-based extruded feeds yielded good water quality, lower labor costs, and allowed production of healthy and disease-free fish without the use of drugs or chemicals.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Growth performance of red tilapia was demonstrated from fingerling to market stages using the ASALVHD cage technology and an all-plant protein, soy-based feed. Red tilapia in three replicate cages of size 1.0-m3 were fed to satiation twice daily with the ASA 32/6 soybean meal-based feed in extruded, floating pellet form. Tilapia grew from 52 g to 577 in 150 days, with an average FCR of 1.34:1. Fish survival averaged 98.3%. Fish production averaged 225.8 kg/m3. Net economic return averaged RMB 712 per m3, at an average market price of RMB 10/kg for red tilapia. Return to investment averaged 46% for the three trial cages.

Production of 225 kg/m3 demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASA LVHD technology and soy-based feed. Compared to traditional cages, the LVHD cages yielded higher production, were easier to manage, and had lower labor costs. The ASA soy-based feed yielded lower FCR, better fish health, higher economic return and less environmental contamination than was previously obtained by the cooperator with traditional sinking feeds. In addition, no drugs or chemicals were required in the trial, which yielded high quality “green” fish without contamination.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

A feeding trial was conducted in Taixing, Jiangsu Province, to demonstrate fingerling to market growth performance of GIFT tilapia using the ASA 80:20 pond production model and the ASA all- plant protein, soymeal-based growout feed. Fish were stocked in three, 5-mu ponds at a density of 1,000 tilapia and 100 silver carp per mu. Tilapia grew from 28 g to an average weight of 525 g per fish in 131 days of feeding. Gross production averaged 509 kg/mu for tilapia and 75 kg/mu for silver carp. Average survival rates for tilapia and silver carp were 97.5% and 98%, respectively. Average FCR for tilapia with the soy-based feed was 1.19:1. Feed cost per kilogram of fish weight gain was RMB 3.63. Net economic return was RMB 1,200 per mu. Average return on investment (ROI) was 36.4%. Tilapia demonstrated excellent growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and economic return with the ASA extruded, soymeal-based feed and 80:20 production technology in this trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 30, 2002

Author
Michael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Zhou Enhua
Description

Weaning of 74-g Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) from trash fish to extruded feed, followed by growout to market size on extruded feed, was demonstrated in a cage feeding trial at Longmen Town, Qingzhou City, Guangxi Province, China. Sea bass that had only been fed with trash fish were stocked in three, 6.4-m3 cages at a density of 156 fish per m3 and weaned from trash fish to extruded feed over a period of one week. After weaning to extruded feed, the sea bass were fed to satiation twice daily with a 43/12 extruded, floating marine fish feed formulated by ASA. Dehulled soybean meal was used as a partial replacement for fishmeal in the 43/12 feed. Sea bass grew from 74 g to 505 g in 144 days on the ASA feed, with an average FCR of 1.31:1. Average fish carrying capacity at harvest was 72 kg/m3 of cage. The average fish survival rate was 91.1%. Net economic return and return on investment for the trial were RMB 714/m3 and 82.2%, respectively. Sea bass weaned from trash fish to extruded feed without difficulty and exhibited good production performance on the extruded feed following weaning. Feed conversion efficiency with the ASA 43/12 feed, which contained 35% dehulled soybean meal by weight, was significantly lower than that obtained with trash fish. Feed cost per kilogram of fish growth with the ASA extruded feed was RMB 6.29, which was substantially below the cost of producing sea bass with trash fish. Sea bass demonstrated a high degree of tolerance for low salinity water conditions that prevailed at the Longmen site throughout the duration of the feeding trial.

Language
English

Date Published
October 31, 2001

Author
ichael C. Cremer, Zhang Jian and Hsiang Pin Lan